Europe

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.

Europe

Area
10,180,000 km2 (3,930,000 sq mi)[citation needed] (6th)

Population
741,447,158 (2016; 3rd)

Population density
72.9/km2 (188/sq mi) (2nd)

GDP (nominal)
$21.82 trillion (2018; 3rd)

GDP (PPP)
$28.03 trillion (2018; 2nd)

GDP per capita
$29,450 (2018; 3rd)

HDI
Increase 0.845[5]

Demonym
European

Countries
50 sovereign states
6 with limited recognition

Dependencies
6 dependencies

Languages
Most common first languages:
Russian, German, French, Italian, EnglishSpanish, Polish, Ukrainian, Romanian, Dutch

Time zones
UTC−1 to UTC+5

Largest cities
Largest urban areas:
Istanbul, Moscow, Paris, London, Madrid, Barcelona, St Petersburg, Rome, Berlin, Milan

Since around 1850, Europe is most commonly considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity. The division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The geographic border also does not follow political boundaries, with Turkey, Russia and Kazakhstan being transcontinental countries. A strict application of the Caucasus Mountains boundary also places two comparatively small countries, Azerbaijan and Georgia, in both continents.

Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of land area). Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016.[1] The European climate is largely affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast.

Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization.[8][9][10] The fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas, almost all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.

Subregions of Europe – CIA World
Northern Europe

  • Western Europe
  • Central Europe
  • Southern Europe
  • Southeastern Europe
  • Southwestern Europe
  • Eastern Europe

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