Sexual transmitted diseases (STD) are infection that pass from one person to another through sexual contact.
They are also known as sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or venereal diseases (VD).
Some STDs can spread through the use of unsterilized drug needles, from mother to infant during childbirth or breast-feeding, and blood transfusions.
The genital areas are generally moist and warm environments, ideal for the growth of yeasts, viruses, and bacteria.
People can transmit microorganisms that inhabit the skin or mucous membranes of the genitals. Infectious organisms can also move between people in semen, vaginal secretions, or blood during sexual intercourse.
Individuals pass on STDs more easily when they are not using contraceptive devices, such as condoms, dams, and sanitizing sex toys.Some infections can transmit through sexual contact but are not classed as STDs. For example, meningitis can be passed on during sexual contact, but people can acquire a meningitis infection for other reasons. It is therefore not classed as an STD.
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that there are more than 1 million new STDs acquired each day globally.People between the ages of 15 and 24 years acquire half of all new STDs, and 1 in 4 sexually active adolescent females has an STD. However, STD rates among seniors are increasing.The following sections explain the most common STD’s.
Chlamydia is an STD caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis). This bacterium only infects humans. Chlamydia is the most common infectious cause of genital and eye diseases globally. It is also the most common bacterial STD.According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in 2015, nearly 3 percent of girls aged 15 to 19 years had chlamydia.Women with chlamydia do not usually show symptoms. Any symptoms are usually non-specific and may include: bladder infection, A change in vaginal discharge, Mild lower abdominal pain If a person does not receive treatment for chlamydia, it may lead to the following symptoms: pelvic pain, painful sexual intercourse, either intermittently or every time Bleeding between periods
The hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes this STD.It is transmitted through contact with infected semen, blood, and other bodily fluids.HBV is passed on in the following ways:unprotected sexusing an unsterilized syringebeing accidentally pricked by a sharp objectdrinking infected breast milkbeing bitten by a person with hepatitis BThe liver swells, and an individual can experience serious liver damage as a result of HBV.This can eventually lead to cancer, and the disease can sometimes become chronic. Blood donation centers always check to make sure that any donors do not have hepatitis B.
Trichomoniasis is a common STD that can affect both sexes. However, women are more likely to experience symptoms. The infection is caused by a single-celled protozoan parasite, Trichomonas vaginalis.For women, the vagina is the most common site of infection, while for men it is the urethra. Transmission may occur either by sexual intercourse or vulva-to-vulva contact.While women may acquire the infection from either male or female sexual partners, men nearly always become infected from having sex with women.
Symptoms of trichomoniasis include:
vaginal odor, vaginal discharge pain or discomfort during sexual intercourse, pain when urinatingA woman with trichomoniasis is more likely to acquire HIV once exposed to the virus. A woman with trichomoniasis and HIV is also more likely to transmit HIV virus onto other sexual partners.
Facts about std
The term sexually transmitted disease (STD) is used to refer to a condition passed from one person to another through sexual contact. You can contract an STD by having unprotected vaginal, anal, or oral sex with someone who has the STD.
An STD may also be called a sexually transmitted infection (STI) or venereal disease (VD).
That doesn’t mean sex is the only way STDs are transmitted. Depending on the specific STD, infections may also be transmitted through sharing needles and breastfeeding.
Symptoms of STDs in men
It’s possible to contract an STD without developing symptoms. But some STDs cause obvious symptoms. In men, common symptoms include: pain or discomfort during sex or urination, sores, bumps, or rashes on or around the penis, testicles, anus, buttocks, thighs, or mouth, unusual discharge or bleeding from the penis, painful or swollen testicles. Specific symptoms can vary, depending on the STD. Learn more about the symptoms of STDs in men.
Symptoms of STDs in women
In many cases, STDs don’t cause noticeable symptoms. When they do, common STD symptoms in women include: pain or discomfort during sex or urination, sores, bumps, or rashes on or around the vagina, anus, buttocks, thighs, or mouth, unusual discharge or bleeding from the vagina itchiness in or around the vagina.The specific symptoms can vary from one STD to another. Here’s more about the symptoms of STDs in women.
Many STDs are curable. For example, the following STDs can be cured with antibiotics or other treatments: chlamydia, syphilis gonorrhea, crabs trichomoniasis Others can’t be cured. For example, the following STDs are currently incurable: HPV, HIV, herpes. Even if an STD can’t be cured, however, it can still be managed. It’s still important to get an early diagnosis. Treatment options are often available to help alleviate symptoms and lower your chances of transmitting the STD to someone else. Take a moment to learn more about curable and incurable STDs.
Treatment of STDs
Avoiding sexual contact is the only foolproof way to avoid STDs. But if you do have vaginal, anal, or oral sex, there are ways to make it safer.When used properly, condomsprovide effective protection against many STDs.For optimal protection, it’s important to use condoms during vaginal, anal, and oral sex.Dental dams can also provide protection during oral sex.Condoms are generally effective at preventing STDs that spread through fluids, such as semen or blood.But they can’t fully protect against STDs that spread from skin to skin. If your condom doesn’t cover the infected area of skin, you can still contract an STD or pass it to your partner.Condoms can help protect against not only STDs, but also unwanted pregnancy.In contrast, many other types of birth control lower the risk of unwanted pregnancy but not STDs.For example, the following forms of birth control don’t protect against STDs:birth control pillsbirth control shotbirth control implantsintrauterine devices (IUDs)Regular STD screening is a good idea for anyone who’s sexually active. It’s particularly important for those with a new partner or multiple partners. Early diagnosis and treatment can help stop the spread of infections.Before having sex with a new partner, it’s important to discuss your sexual history.Both of you should also be screened for STDs by a healthcare professional.Since STDs often have no symptoms, testing is the only way to know for sure if you have one.When discussing STD test results, it’s important to ask your partner what they’ve been tested for. Many people assume their doctors have screened them for STDs as part of their regular care, but that’s not always true. You need to ask your doctor for specific STD tests to ensure you take them.If your partner tests positive for an STD, it’s important for them to follow their healthcare provider’s recommended treatment plan. You can also ask your doctor about strategies to protect yourself from contracting the STD from your partner.For example, if your partner has HIV, your doctor will likely encourage you to take pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).If you’re eligible, you and your partner should also consider getting vaccinated for HPV and hepatitis B.By following these strategies and others, you can lower your chances of getting STDs and passing them to others. Learn more about the importance of safe sex and STD prevention.