All posts by Davidadeb

Kylian Mbappe

Kylian Mbappe is a French professional footballer who plays as a forward for Ligue 1 club Paris Saint-Germain and the France national team.

PropellerAds

Mbappé came into prominence at an early age, starring for the youth academy at Bondy before gaining a mov\ne to Monaco, where he made his professional debut in 2015, aged 16.

Mbappé then quickly established himself as a regular goalscorer for the first team in the 2016–17 season, as he helped the club gain their first Ligue 1 title in seventeen years.

A year later, he transferred to Paris Saint-Germain for €180 million, making him the most expensive teenager, and the world’s second-most expensive player. In his debut season in the French capital, Mbappé featured heavily as the club captured a domestic treble of Ligue 1, Coupe de France, and Coupe de la Ligue.

Mbappé made his senior debut for France in 2017. At the 2018 FIFA World Cup, Mbappé became the youngest French player to score at a World Cup, and became the second teenager, after Pelé, to score in a World Cup Final. He finished as the joint second-highest goalscorer as France won the tournament, and received the Best Young Player Award for his performances.

White Lion

The white lion is a rare morph with a genetic condition called leucism that is caused by a double recessive allele. It is not albino; it has normal pigmentation in the eyes and skin. White lions have occasionally been encountered in and around Kruger National Park and the adjacent Timbavati Private Game Reserve in eastern South Africa.

They were removed from the wild in the 1970s, thus decreasing the white lion gene pool. Nevertheless, 17 births have been recorded in five prides between 2007 and 2015.

White lions are selected for breeding in captivity.They have reportedly been bred in camps in South Africa for use as trophies to be killed during canned hunts.

Check out the tiger’s striped skin

The tiger has a muscular body with powerful forelimbs, a large head and a tail that is about half the length of its body. Its pelage is dense and heavy, and colouration varies between shades of orange and brown with white ventral areas and distinctive vertical black stripes that are unique in each individual.

Stripes are likely advantageous for camouflage in vegetation such as long grass with strong vertical patterns of light and shade.

The tiger is one of only a few striped cat species; it is not known why spotted patterns and rosettes are the more common camouflage pattern among felids.

A tiger’s coat pattern is still visible when it is shaved. This is not due to skin pigmentation, but to the stubble and hair follicles embedded in the skin, similar to human beards (colloquially five o’clock shadow), and is in common with other big cats.

They have a mane-like heavy growth of fur around the neck and jaws and long whiskers, especially in males.

The pupils are circular with yellow irises. The small, rounded ears have a prominent white spot on the back, surrounded by black.
These false “eyespots”, called ocelli, apparently play an important role in intraspecific communication.

White tiger

The white tiger lacks yellow pigments, has dark sepia-brown stripes and blue eyes.

This altered pigmentation is caused by a mutant gene that is inherited as an autosomal recessive.

It is not an albino, as the black pigments are scarcely affected.The mutation changes a single amino acid in the transporter protein SLC45A2.

Both parents need to have the allele for whiteness to have white cubs. Between the early and mid 20th century, white tigers were recorded and shot in the Indian states of Odisha, Bihar, Assam and in the area of Rewa, Madhya Pradesh.

The local maharaja started breeding tigers in the early 1950s and kept a white male tiger together with its normal-coloured daughter; they had white cubs.

To preserve this recessive trait, only a few white individuals were used in captive breeding, which lead to a high degree of inbreeding.

Inbreeding depression is the main reason for many health problems of captive white tigers, including strabismus, stillbirth, deformities and premature death.

Other physical defects include cleft palate and scoliosis.

True albino tigers do exist and may be termed “snow white” tigers. In this colour morph, the stripes are extremely faint on the body while the tail has pale reddish-brown rings.

Golden tigers, another colour morph, have pale golden pelage with a blond tone and reddish-brown stripes. These types are rarely recorded in the wild. Both snow white and golden tiger are homozygous for the CORIN gene.

The Tiger 🐅

The tiger (Panthera tigris) is the largest species among the Felidae and classified in the genus Panthera. It is most recognizable for its dark vertical stripes on reddish-orange fur with a lighter underside.

It is an apex predator, primarily preying on ungulates such as deer and bovids. It is territorial and generally a solitary but social predator, requiring large contiguous areas of habitat, which support its requirements for prey and rearing of its offspring.

Tiger cubs stay with their mother for about two years, before they become independent and leave their mother’s home range to establish their own.

Photo by Zocha K| Getty Images

The tiger once ranged widely from Eastern Anatolia Region in the west to the Amur River basin, and in the south from the foothills of the Himalayas to Bali in the Sunda islands.

Since the early 20th century, tiger populations have lost at least 93% of their historic range and have been extirpated in Western and Central Asia, from the islands of Java and Bali, and in large areas of Southeast and South Asia and China.

Today’s tiger range is fragmented, stretching from Siberian temperate forests to subtropical and tropical forests on the Indian subcontinent and Sumatra.

The tiger is listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List since 1986. As of 2015, the global wild tiger population was estimated to number between 3,062 and 3,948 mature individuals, down from around 100,000 at the start of the 20th century, with most remaining populations occurring in small pockets isolated from each other.

Major reasons for population decline include habitat destruction, habitat fragmentation and poaching.

This, coupled with the fact that it lives in some of the more densely populated places on Earth, has caused significant conflicts with humans.

The tiger is among the most recognisable and popular of the world’s charismatic megafauna. It featured prominently in ancient mythology and folklore and continues to be depicted in modern films and literature, appearing on many flags, coats of arms and as mascots for sporting teams. The tiger is the national animal of India, Bangladesh, Malaysia and South Korea.

Probable evolution of the tiger

The tiger’s closest living relatives were previously thought to be the Panthera species lion, leopard and jaguar.

Results of genetic analysis indicate that about 2.88 million years ago, the tiger and the snow leopard lineages diverged from the other Panthera species, and that both may be more closely related to each other than to the lion, leopard and jaguar.

P. t. palaeosinensis from the Early Pleistocene of northern China is the most primitive known tiger to date.

Fossil remains of Panthera zdanskyi were excavated in Gansu province of northwestern China.

This species lived at the beginning of the Pleistocene about two million years ago, and is considered to be a sister taxon of the modern tiger. It was about the size of a jaguar and probably had a different coat pattern.

Despite being considered more “primitive”, it was functionally and possibly also ecologically similar to the modern tiger. Northwestern China is thought to be the origin of the tiger lineage.

Tigers grew in size, possibly in response to adaptive radiations of prey species like deer and bovids, which may have occurred in Southeast Asia during the early Pleistocene.

Panthera tigris trinilensis lived about 1.2 million years ago and is known from fossils excavated near Trinil in Java.

The Wanhsien, Ngandong, Trinil and Japanese tigers became extinct in prehistoric times.

Tigers reached India and northern Asia in the late Pleistocene, reaching eastern Beringia, Japan, and Sakhalin. Some fossil skulls are morphologically distinct from lion skulls, which could indicate tiger presence in Alaska during the last glacial period, about 100,000 years ago.

Tiger fossils found in the island of Palawan were smaller than mainland tiger fossils, possibly due to insular dwarfism.

Fossil remains of tigers were also excavated in Sri Lanka, China, Japan, Sarawak dating to the late Pliocene, Pleistocene and Early Holocene.

The Bornean tiger was apparently present in Borneo between the Late Pleistocene and the Holocene, but may have gone extinct in prehistoric times.

The potential tiger range during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene was predicted applying ecological niche modelling based on more than 500 tiger locality records combined with bioclimatic data.

The resulting model shows a contiguous tiger range from southern India to Siberia at the Last Glacial Maximum, indicating an unobstructed gene flow between tiger populations in mainland Asia throughout the Late Pleistocene and Holocene.

The tiger populations on the Sunda Islands and mainland Asia were possibly separated during interglacial periods.

Results of a phylogeographic study indicate that all living tigers had a common ancestor 72,000–108,000 years ago.

The tiger’s full genome sequence was published in 2013. It was found to have similar repeat composition than other cat genomes and an appreciably conserved synteny.

Hybrids

Captive tigers were bred with lions to create hybrids called liger and tigon. They share physical and behavioural qualities of both parent species. Breeding hybrids is now discouraged due to the emphasis on conservation.

The liger is a cross between a male lion and a tigress. Ligers are typically between 10 and 12 ft (3.0 and 3.7 m) in length, and weigh between 800 and 1,000 lb (360 and 450 kg) or more.
Because the lion sire passes on a growth-promoting gene, but the corresponding growth-inhibiting gene from the female tiger is absent, ligers grow far larger than either parent species.

The less common tigon is a cross between a lioness and a male tiger. Because the male tiger does not pass on a growth-promoting gene and the lioness passes on a growth inhibiting gene, tigons are around the same size as their parents.

Some females are fertile and have occasionally given birth to litigons when mated to a male Asiatic lion.

Big cats

The term “big cat” is typically used to refer to any of the five living members of the genus Panthera, namely tiger, lion, jaguar, leopard, and snow leopard. Except the snow leopard, these species are able to roar.

Despite enormous differences in size, various cat species are quite similar in both structure and behaviour, with the exception of the cheetah, which significantly stands out from the other big and small cats.

All cats are carnivores and efficient apex predators.Their range includes the Americas, Africa, and Asia.

The ability to roar comes from an elongated and specially adapted larynx and hyoid apparatus.

When air passes through the larynx on the way from the lungs, the cartilage walls of the larynx vibrate, producing sound.

The lion’s larynx is longest, giving it the most robust roar. The roar in good conditions can be heard 8 or even 10 km away. All five extant members of the genus Panthera contain this elongated hyoid but owing to differences in the larynx the snow leopard cannot roar.

It is estimated that the ancestors of most big cats split away from the Felinae about 6.37 million years ago.

The Felinae, on the other hand, comprises mostly small to medium-sized cats, including the domestic cats, but also some larger cats such as the cougar and cheetah.

Diego Maradona

Full name
Diego Armando Maradona

Date of birth
30 October 1960

Place of birth
Lanús, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Height
1.65 m (5 ft 5 in)

Playing position
Attacking midfielder
Second striker

Current team
Dorados (manager)

Diego Maradona, an Argentine retired professional footballer and current manager of Mexican second division club Dorados. Many in the sport, including football writers, players, and fans, regard him as the greatest football player of all time. He was joint FIFA Player of the 20th Century with Pelé.

Maradona’s vision, passing, ball control and dribbling skills was combined with his small stature (1.65 m or 5 ft 5 in), giving him a low center of gravity which allowed him to maneuver better than most other football players; he would often dribble past multiple opposing players on a run.

His presence and leadership on the field had a great effect on his team’s general performance, while he would often be singled out by the opposition.

A precocious talent, Maradona was given the nickname “El Pibe de Oro” (“The Golden Boy”), a name that stuck with him throughout his career.

Clubs played for during his senior career

Argentinos Juniors
Boca Juniors
Barcelona
Napoli
Sevilla
Newell’s Old Boys
Boca Juniors

Golf

Golf is a club-and-ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible.

Golf, unlike most ball games, cannot and does not utilize a standardized playing area, and coping with the varied terrains encountered on different courses is a key part of the game.

The game at the usual level is played on a course with an arranged progression of 18 holes, though recreational courses can be smaller, often having 9 holes.

Each hole on the course must contain a tee box to start from, and a putting green containing the actual hole or cup 4 1⁄4 inches (11 cm) in diameter.

There are other standard forms of terrain in between, such as the fairway, rough (long grass), bunkers (or “sand traps”), and various hazards (water, rocks) but each hole on a course is unique in its specific layout and arrangement.

Golf is played for the lowest number of strokes by an individual, known as stroke play, or the lowest score on the most individual holes in a complete round by an individual or team, known as match play.

Stroke play is the most commonly seen format at all levels, but most especially at the elite level.

The modern game of golf originated in 15th century Scotland. The 18-hole round was created at the Old Course at St Andrews in 1764. Golf’s first major, and the world’s oldest tournament in existence, is The Open Championship, also known as the British Open, which was first played in 1860 in Ayrshire, Scotland.

This is one of the four major championships in men’s professional golf, the other three being played in the United States: The Masters, the U.S. Open, and the PGA Championship.

Brief history of Golf

While the modern game of golf originated in 15th-century Scotland, the game’s ancient origins are unclear and much debated.

Some historians trace the sport back to the Roman game of paganica, in which participants used a bent stick to hit a stuffed leather ball.

One theory asserts that paganica spread throughout Europe as the Romans conquered most of the continent, during the first century BC, and eventually evolved into the modern game.

Others cite chuiwan (“chui” means striking and “wan” means small ball) as the progenitor, a Chinese game played between the eighth and fourteenth centuries.

A Ming Dynasty scroll dating back to 1368 entitled “The Autumn Banquet” shows a member of the Chinese Imperial court swinging what appears to be a golf club at a small ball with the aim of sinking it into a hole.

The game is thought to have been introduced into Europe during the Middle Ages. Another early game that resembled modern golf was known as cambuca in England and chambot in France.

The Persian game chaugán is another possible ancient origin. In addition, kolven (a game involving a ball and curved bats) was played annually in Loenen, Netherlands, beginning in 1297, to commemorate the capture of the assassin of Floris V, a year earlier.

The modern game originated in Scotland, where the first written record of golf is James II’s banning of the game in 1457, as an unwelcome distraction to learning archery.

James IV lifted the ban in 1502 when he became a golfer himself, with golf clubs first recorded in 1503–1504: “For golf clubbes and balles to the King that he playit with”.

To many golfers, the Old Course at St Andrews, a links course dating to before 1574, is considered to be a site of pilgrimage.

In 1764, the standard 18-hole golf course was created at St Andrews when members modified the course from 22 to 18 holes.

Golf is documented as being played on Musselburgh Links, East Lothian, Scotland as early as 2 March 1672, which is certified as the oldest golf course in the world by Guinness World Records.

The oldest surviving rules of golf were compiled in March 1744 for the Company of Gentlemen Golfers, later renamed The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers, which was played at Leith, Scotland.

The world’s oldest golf tournament in existence, and golf’s first major, is The Open Championship, which was first played on 17 October 1860 at Prestwick Golf Club, in Ayrshire, Scotland, with Scottish golfers winning the earliest majors.

Two Scotsmen from Dunfermline, John Reid and Robert Lockhart, first demonstrated golf in the U.S. by setting up a hole in an orchard in 1888, with Reid setting up America’s first golf club the same year, Saint Andrew’s Golf Club in Yonkers, New York.

How is a golf course

A golf course consists of either 9 or 18 holes, each with a teeing ground that is set off by two markers showing the bounds of the legal tee area, fairway, rough and other hazards, and the putting green surrounded by the fringe with the pin (normally a flagstick) and cup.

The levels of grass are varied to increase difficulty, or to allow for putting in the case of the green.

While many holes are designed with a direct line-of-sight from the teeing area to the green, some holes may bend either to the left or to the right. This is commonly called a “dogleg”, in reference to a dog’s knee. The hole is called a “dogleg left” if the hole angles leftwards and “dogleg right” if it bends right. Sometimes, a hole’s direction may bend twice; this is called a “double dogleg”.

A regular golf course consists of 18 holes, but nine-hole courses are common and can be played twice through for a full round of 18 holes.

Early Scottish golf courses were primarily laid out on links land, soil-covered sand dunes directly inland from beaches.

This gave rise to the term “golf links”, particularly applied to seaside courses and those built on naturally sandy soil inland.

The first 18-hole golf course in the United States was on a sheep farm in Downers Grove, Illinois, in 1892. The course is still there today

Harry Kane

Full name
Harry Edward Kane

Date of birth
28 July 1993 (age 25)

Place of birth
Walthamstow, England

Height
6 ft 2 in (1.88 m)

Playing position
Striker

Current team
Tottenham Hotspur

Number
10

Harry kane is an English professional footballer who plays as a striker for Premier League club Tottenham Hotspur and captains the England national team.

Many panel members commissioned by The Guardian considered him to be one of the best players in the world in 2018.

Born and raised in Walthamstow, Kane began his professional career at Tottenham Hotspur, where, after fast progression through the team’s youth academy, he was promoted to the senior team in 2009, at age 16.

He did not initially feature for the side, and instead, was loaned out several times to clubs across the English football pyramid, including Leyton Orient, Millwall, Leicester City, and Norwich City.

Kane’s involvement at Tottenham began to increase following the appointment of Mauricio Pochettino as head coach in 2014.

In his first full season at the club, Kane netted 31 goals across all competitions, and finished as the league’s second highest goalscorer, winning the PFA Young Player of the Year award.

After the following campaign, at age 23, Kane finished as league’s top goalscorer, and guided the club to UEFA Champions League qualification.

In the 2016–17 season, Kane also completed the season as the league’s top goalscorer, and helped the club finish as the competition’s runners-up, while he won the PFA Fans’ Player of the Year award. In the 2017–18 season, Kane registered his best campaign statistically to date, with 41 goals scored in 48 games in all competitions.

Kane holds the record for most Premier League Player of the Month awards (six; shared with Steven Gerrard) and has been selected for the PFA Team of the Year four times. He established himself as Tottenham’s fourth all-time scorer in official competitions in January 2019, and holds the best strike-rate (0.70 goals per game) in Premier League history.

An English international, Kane has scored 22 goals in 37 games for his country. He has appeared and scored at every youth level, and made his senior debut in March 2015 at age 21, where he scored on his debut.

Kane featured and scored at UEFA Euro 2016 qualifying, before he was selected as the squad’s captain from May 2018, prior to the 2018 FIFA World Cup.

In the tournament, Kane led England to fourth-place, their highest finish since 1990, by finishing as the top goalscorer, and won the Golden Boot.

Lampard gives stunning judgement on Maurizio Sarri’s style of play at Chelsea

Maurizio Sarri unfortunate over focus on ‘Sarriball’, says Chelsea legend Lampard

– Maurizio Sarri has been praised by Chelsea legend Frank Lampard who believes he is a good manager

– Lampard added that the former Napoli handler has been unfortunate over focusing on the ‘Sarriball’ approach

– There are news that Maurizio Sarri would leave Stamford Bridge at the end of the season Chelsea legend Frank Lampard has made it clear that current Blues’ manager Maurizio Sarri has perhaps been treated unfairly over his rigid philosophy at Stamford Bridge.

Maurizio Sarri started his managerial career impressively at Chelsea masterminding a 12-match unbeaten Premier League run that appeared to put the Blues on course for a title challenge.

But things later turned sour for the Blues in the Premier League and Chelsea are now fighting to finish among the top four clubs at the end of the season.

And ahead of Chelsea’s next Premier League game against Cardiff City on Sunday, March 31, Frank Lampard showed his admiration for the Italian and defended him as a good manager. “I respect managers who have a belief in a philosophy or system. I have never worked with Sarri, but I did see his Napoli team play fantastic football. “It has been unfortunate for Sarri himselfm as a good manager.

“I respect managers who have a belief in a philosophy or system. I have never worked with Sarri, but I did see his Napoli team play fantastic football. \”It has been unfortunate for Sarri himself, everyone has come up with this ‘Sarriball’ term, but I am not sure I have ever heard him actually milk that one or make it his own. ”I think he is just trying to win football games and he has brought in players who want to play the way he wants to play. Everyone has become a little bit focused on that fact. I think he is a very good manager,” Lampard told Goal.

Chelsea are currently occupying sixth position on the Premier League standings with 57 points after 30 games played this season.

Protein

Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, providing structure to cells and organisms, and transporting molecules from one location to another

The best-known role of proteins in the cell is as enzymes, which catalyse chemical reactions.

Enzymes are usually highly specific and accelerate only one or a few chemical reactions.

Enzymes carry out most of the reactions involved in metabolism, as well as manipulating DNA in processes such as DNA replication, DNA repair, and transcription.

Some enzymes act on other proteins to add or remove chemical groups in a process known as posttranslational modification. About 4,000 reactions are known to be catalysed by enzymes

Many proteins are involved in the process of cell signaling and signal transduction. Some proteins, such as insulin, are extracellular proteins that transmit a signal from the cell in which they were synthesized to other cells in distant tissues.

There are nine essential amino acids which humans must obtain from their diet in order to prevent protein-energy malnutrition and resulting death. They are phenylalanine, Valine, threonine, tryptophan, methionine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, and histidine.

Protein is a nutrient needed by the human body for growth and maintenance. Aside from water, proteins are the most abundant kind of molecules in the body. Protein can be found in all cells of the body and is the major structural component of all cells in the body, especially muscle. This also includes body organs, hair and skin.

Proteins are also used in membranes, such as glycoproteins. When broken down into amino acids, they are used as precursors to nucleic acid, co-enzymes, hormones, immune response, cellular repair, and other molecules essential for life. Additionally, protein is needed to form blood cells

Harry Kane sends big warning to Tottenham, tells them what they must do for him to stay


Harry Kane has revealed that he has the desire of playing in NFL.

Harry Kane has revealed that he has the desire to play in the NFL – The 25-year-old Englishman also wants his club Tottenham to have ambition

Kane has netted 164 goals in 249 appearances for Spurs and has been linked with Real Madrid England international Harry Kane has hinted that he has the desire to play in the National Football League in America as he throws his future at Tottenham into doubt.

Kane is viewed as one of the best front men currently playing in world football having netted 164 goals in 249 appearances for Tottenham.

The striker has helped Tottenham from top six hopefuls to regular Champions League qualifiers as they are also in the quarterfinals of the 2018/19 Champions League. Harry Kane has now told Premier League side Tottenham that he wants the team to show their ambition if they want him to stay.

“That’s real, It is something that in 10 or 12 years I definitely want to try. “It goes back to that drive to be the best. Even if I download a game on my phone, can I be the best in the world?,” Kane told ESPN.

And while speaking on Tottenham, the Englishman said:” “A lot of people look at it and say this is maybe the best team we’ve had, maybe the best team we’ll ever have, and the best manager, but it’s important that we have something to show for it,’‘ he explained.

Meanwhile, Hary Kane signed a six-year contract extension last year June while his Spurs boss Pochettino also extended to 2023.

Know More About “Cristiano Ronaldo”

A little biography of Cristiano Ronaldo

Cristiano Ronaldo Juventus|Source: Twitter

Cristiano Ronaldo whose full name is ” Ronaldo dos Santos Aveiro” is a Portuguese professional footballer who plays as a forward for Italian club Juventus and captains the Portugal national team.

Born on 5 February 1985 in Funchal, Madeira, Portugal, He raised on the Portuguese island of Madeira, Ronaldo was diagnosed with a racing heart at age 15. He underwent an operation to treat his condition, and began his senior club career playing for Sporting CP, before signing with Manchester United at age 18 in 2003.

He has a height of 1.89 m (6 ft 2 in)

Cristiano Ronaldo is considered the best player in the world and regarded by many as one of the greatest players of all time with rival Lionel Messi, Ronaldo has a record-tying five Ballon d’Or awards, the most for a European player, and is the first player to win four European Golden Shoes.

He has won 27 trophies in his career, including five league titles, five UEFA Champions League titles and one UEFA European Championship.

Cristiano Ronaldo holding the cup

A prolific goalscorer, Ronaldo holds the records for most official goals scored in Europe’s top-five leagues (414), the UEFA Champions League (124), the UEFA European Championship (9), as well as those for most assists in the UEFA Champions League (34) and the UEFA European Championship (6). He has scored 700 senior career goals for club and country.

After winning his first trophy in England, the FA Cup, during his first season there, he helped United win three successive Premier League titles, a UEFA Champions League title, and a FIFA Club World Cup.

By age 22, he had received Ballon d’Or and FIFA World Player of the Year nominations and at age 23, he won his first Ballon d’Or and FIFA World Player of the Year awards.

In 2009, Ronaldo was the subject of, what was, at the time, the most expensive association football transfer when he moved from Manchester United to Real Madrid in a transfer worth €94 million (£80 million).

With Real Madrid, Ronaldo won 15 trophies, including two La Liga titles, two Copas del Rey, four UEFA Champions League titles, two UEFA Super Cups, and three FIFA Club World Cups.

Real Madrid’s all-time top goalscorer, Ronaldo scored a record 34 La Liga hat-tricks, including a record-tying eight hat-tricks in the 2014–15 season and is the only player to reach 30 goals in six consecutive La Liga seasons.

Cristiano Ronaldo playing for Portugal|Source: Twitter

After joining Madrid, Ronaldo finished runner-up for the Ballon d’Or three times, behind Lionel Messi, his perceived career rival, before winning back-to-back Ballons d’Or in 2013 and 2014.

After winning the 2016 and 2017 Champions Leagues, Ronaldo secured back-to-back Ballons d’Or again in 2016 and 2017.

A historic third consecutive Champions League followed, making Ronaldo the first player to win the trophy five times.

In 2018, he signed for Juventus in a transfer worth an initial €100 million; the highest ever paid by an Italian club and the highest fee ever paid for a player over 30 years old.

A Portuguese international, Ronaldo was named the best Portuguese player of all time by the Portuguese Football Federation in 2015.

He made his senior debut for Portugal in 2003 at age 18, and has since had over 150 caps, including appearing and scoring in eight major tournaments, becoming Portugal’s most capped player and his country’s all-time top goalscorer. He scored his first international goal at Euro 2004 and helped Portugal reach the final.Planck

Ronaldo celebrating for a goal in Real Madrid FC| Source: Twitter

He took over full captaincy in July 2008, leading Portugal to their first-ever triumph in a major tournament by winning Euro 2016, and received the Silver Boot as the second-highest goalscorer of the tournament, before becoming the highest European international goalscorer of all-time.

Know More About Lionel Messi

A little biography of Lionel Messi

Captain Lionel Messi

Lionel Messi whose full name is “Lionel Andrés Messi Cuccittini” is an Argentine professional footballer who plays as a forward and captains both Spanish club Barcelona and the Argentina national team.

He was born on 24 June 1987 in Rosario, Argentina(Central Argentina). Messi has an height of 1.70 m(5ft 7 in) and was diagnosed with a growth hormone deficiency as a child.

Messi relocated to Spain to join Barcelona at age 13, who agreed to pay for his medical treatment. After a fast progression through Barcelona’s youth academy, Messi made his competitive debut aged 17 in October 2004.

He established himself as an integral player for the club within the next three years despite being injury-prone during his early career, finishing 2007 as a finalist for both the Ballon d’Or and FIFA World Player of the Year award, a feat he repeated the following year.

Messi is often considered the best player in the world and regarded by many as the greatest player of all time with rival Cristiano Ronaldo, Messi has won a record-tying five Ballon d’Or awards, four of which he won consecutively, and a record five European Golden Shoes.

He has spent his entire professional career with Barcelona, where he has won a club-record 32 trophies, including nine La Liga titles, four UEFA Champions League titles and six Copas del Rey.

His first uninterrupted campaign came in the 2008–09 season, during which he helped Barcelona achieve the first treble in Spanish football.

At 22 years old, Messi won the Ballon d’Or and FIFA World Player of the Year award by record voting margins.

Three successful seasons followed, with Messi winning three consecutive FIFA Ballons d’Or, including an unprecedented fourth. During the 2011–12 season, he set the La Liga and European records for most goals scored in a single season, while establishing himself as Barcelona’s all-time top scorer in official competitions in March 2012.

The following two seasons, Messi finished twice second for the Ballon d’Or behind Cristiano Ronaldo, his perceived career rival. Messi regained his best form during the 2014–15 campaign, breaking the all-time goalscoring records in both La Liga and the Champions League in November 2014 and leading Barcelona to a historic second treble.

An Argentine international, Messi is his country’s all-time leading goalscorer. At youth level, he won the 2005 FIFA World Youth Championship, finishing the tournament with both the Golden Ball and Golden Shoe, and an Olympic gold medal at the 2008 Summer Olympics. His style of play as a diminutive, left-footed dribbler drew comparisons with compatriot Diego Maradona, who declared the teenager his successor.

After making his senior debut in August 2005, Messi became the youngest Argentine to play and score in a FIFA World Cup during the 2006 edition, and reached the final of the 2007 Copa América, where he was named young player of the tournament.

As the squad’s captain from August 2011, he led Argentina to three consecutive finals: the 2014 FIFA World Cup, for which he won the Golden Ball, and the 2015 and 2016 Copas América.

After announcing his international retirement in 2016, he reversed his decision and led his country to qualification for the 2018 FIFA World Cup. He made so much achievements but couldn’t proof his talent in country like in club.

Fact: Messi is the highest earning football and one of the most famous footballer in history.

Yes, since you’re pregnant you eat differently.

Now you are pregnant, it is important to try to eat well so your baby will grow well. You and your growing baby need lots of different foods.

A simple way to think about it is to eat lots of different types of foods!
You could talk to your family about the food you need.

Try to eat some of each of these food types every day

Fruit and vegetables.

These protect your baby from being born with a problem.

Starchy foods.

These include bread, rice, noodles, yam and potatoes. These foods give you energy.

Foods rich in protein.

These include eggs, dark green leafy vegetables, bean cake/pudding, chicken, fish and meat. These are body building foods.

Calcium-rich and dairy foods.

These include milk, soy milk, bean cake/pudding. They help your baby grow strong bones.

Important Terms Needed To Know During Pregnancy

Antibodies

These are proteins that are produced by the body’s immune system when it detects a harmful substance in your body, like bacteria or viruses.

Each type of antibody is unique and defends the body against one specific type of harmful substance.

Bladdera

The place where your urine collects

Blood pressure

This is the pressure in your blood vessels, when it is being pumped around your body by your heart. Measuring this pressure can help healthcare providers to know when you are sick.

Carbohydrates

These are starchy, filling foods that give you energy.

Cervix

The opening to your womb. Your cervix opens wide during labour to allow your baby to be born.

Contractions

These are the tightening and relaxing of the womb that happens in labour. They feel like strong period pains.

Contractions gradually move your baby down through the birth canal, ready to be born.

Dehydrated

Your body needs water to stay healthy. If you are dehydrated, this means that your body does not have enough water.

Eclampsia

A serious condition where you have fits or seizures. it happens if pre-eclampsia is not treated.

Folic acid:

This is a vitamin. It helps to protect your baby from developing faults in his spine, called spina bifida.

Hormones:

These chemicals take messages around your body. They move through your bloodstream from special places where they are made, called glands, to your tissues or organs. They work slowly, over time, and affect many different processes in your body, like growth and development, your mood, sex, pregnancy and birth.

Placenta

Or afterbirth, is the part of you which feeds your baby and keeps her alive in the womb

Pre-eclampsia:

This is a sudden rise in your blood pressure, which can happen after 20 weeks of pregnancy. It can be dangerous for you and your baby, and can mean that your baby needs to be born early.

Protein

Proteins are body building foods.

Vagina

The passage leading from the cervix to the outside of your body. It is sometimes called your birth canal.

Vitamins

These are found in foods. Your body needs to have a variety of different vitamins to keep healthy.

Vitamin C

Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in various foods and sold as a dietary supplement.

It is used to prevent and treat scurvy. Vitamin C is an essential nutrient involved in the repair of tissue and the enzymatic production of certain neurotransmitters.

It is required for the functioning of several enzymes and is important for immune system function. It also functions as an antioxidant.

Antioxidants are compounds that inhibit oxidation. Oxidation is a chemical reaction that can produce free radicals, thereby leading to chain reactions that may damage the cells of organisms.

Antioxidants such as thiols or ascorbic acid (vitamin C) terminate these chain reactions.

To balance the oxidative state, plants and animals maintain complex systems of overlapping antioxidants, such as glutathione and enzymes (e.g., catalase and superoxide dismutase), produced internally, or the dietary antioxidants vitamin C, and vitamin E.

Read also: 10 benefit of vitamin c

Vitamins

vitamin is an organic molecule (or related set of molecules) that is an essential micronutrient that an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism.

Essential nutrients cannot be synthesized in the organism, either at all or not in sufficient quantities, and therefore must be obtained through the diet.

Vitamin C can be synthesized by some species but not by others; it is not a vitamin in the first instance but is in the second.

Most vitamins are not single molecules, but groups of related molecules called vitamers. For example, vitamin E consists of four tocopherols and four tocotrienols

The thirteen vitamins required by human metabolism are:

  1. vitamin A. (retinol and carotenoids)
  2. vitamin B1 (thiamine),
  3. vitamin B2 (riboflavin),
  4. vitamin B3 (niacin),
  5. vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid),
  6. vitamin B6 (pyridoxine),
  7. vitamin B7 (biotin),
  8. vitamin B9 (folic acid or folate),
  9. vitamin B12 (cobalamins),
  10. vitamin C (ascorbic acid),
  11. vitamin D (calciferols),
  12. vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols),
  13. vitamin k (quinones).

Vitamin K

Natural or synthetic quinones show a biological or pharmacological activity, and some of them show anti-tumoral activity. They embody some claims in herbal medicine.

These applications include purgative (sennosides), antimicrobial and antiparasitic (rhein- and saprorthoquinone, atovaquone), anti-tumor (emodin and juglone), inhibition of PGE2 biosynthesis (arnebinone and arnebifuranone) and anti-cardiovascular disease (tanshinone).

Danger during pregnancy

Danger for You:

If your waters have broken but you are not in labour after 6 hours

Your contractions are lasting for over 12 hours, but the baby has not come yet

You are bleeding heavily and the blood soaks more than 2 to 3 pads in 15 minutes

Your placenta has not come out, and it is 1 hour after the birth of your baby

Danager for Your baby:

You notice that your baby does not cry at birth, or has difficulty breathing

You notice that your baby cannot breastfeed

You notice that your baby has a fever, or feels cold

Your baby is very small (less than 1500 grams or born earlier than 32 weeks)

Your baby has fits and seizures

Vitamin D

Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.

In humans, the most important compounds in this group are vitamin D3 (also known as cholecalciferol) and vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol).

colecalciferol

colecalciferol is a type of vitamin D which is made by the skin when exposed to sunlight; it is also found in some foods and can be taken as a dietary supplement.

It is used to treat and prevent vitamin D deficiency and associated diseases, including rickets.

It is also used for familial hypophosphatemia, hypoparathyroidism that is causing low blood calcium, and Fanconi syndrome.

It is usually taken by mouth.

Ergocalciferol

Ergocalciferol also known as vitamin D2 and calciferol, is a type of vitamin D found in food and used as a dietary supplement.

As a supplement it is used to prevent and treat vitamin D deficiency.

This includes vitamin D deficiency due to poor absorption by the intestines or liver disease.

It may also be used for low blood calcium due to hypoparathyroidism.

It is used by mouth or injection into a muscle

vitamin E

Because the vitamin activity was first identified in 1936 from a dietary fertility factor in rats, it was given the name “tocopherol” from the Greek words “τόκος” [tókos, birth], and “φέρειν”, [phérein, to bear or carry] meaning in sum

“to carry a pregnancy,”

with the ending “-ol” signifying its status as a chemical alcohol.

α-Tocopherol is the main source found in supplements and in the European diet, where the main dietary sources are olive and sunflower oils, while γ-tocopherol is the most common form in the American diet due to a higher intake of soybean and corn oil.

Tocotrienols, which are related compounds, also have vitamin E activity. All of these various derivatives with vitamin activity may correctly be referred to as “vitamin E”. Tocopherols and tocotrienols are fat-soluble antioxidants but also seem to have many other functions in the body.

Vitamin B5

Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B5 (a B vitamin), is a water-soluble vitamin. Pantothenic acid is an essential nutrient.

Animals require pantothenic acid in order to synthesize coenzyme-A (CoA), as well as to synthesize and metabolize proteins, carbohydrates, and fats.

pantothenic acid are found in nearly every food, with high amounts in fortified whole-grain cereals, egg yolks, liver and dried mushrooms.

Although pantothenic acid supplementation is under preliminary research for a variety of human diseases, there is insufficient evidence to date that it has any effect.

Basketball

Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most commonly of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court, compete with the primary objective of shooting a basketball through the defender’s hoop (a basket 18 inches in diameter mounted 10 feet high to a backboard at each end of the court) while preventing the opposing team from shooting through their own hoop.

The ball used in basketball is approximately 9.4 inches (24 cm) in diameter

A field goal is worth two points, unless made from behind the three-point line, when it is worth three.

After a foul, timed play stops and the player fouled or designated to shoot a technical foul is given one or more one-point free throws.

The team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but if regulation play expires with the score tied, an additional period of play (overtime) is mandated.

Brief history of basketball

In early December 1891, Canadian James Naismith, a physical education professor and instructor at the International Young Men’s Christian Association Training School (YMCA) (today, Springfield College) in Springfield, Massachusetts, was trying to keep his gym class active on a rainy day.

He sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied and at proper levels of fitness during the long New England winters.

After rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot (3.0 m) elevated track. In contrast with modern basketball nets, this peach basket retained its bottom, and balls had to be retrieved manually after each “basket” or point scored; this proved inefficient, however, so the bottom of the basket was removed, allowing the balls to be poked out with a long dowel each time.

Old style basketball with laces
Basketball was originally played with a soccer ball. These round balls from “association football” were made, at the time, with a set of laces to close off the hole needed for inserting the inflatable bladder after the other sewn-together segments of the ball’s cover had been flipped outside-in.[7][8] These laces could cause bounce passes and dribbling to be unpredictable.[9] Eventually a lace-free ball construction method was invented, and this change to the game was endorsed by Naismith. (Whereas in American football, the lace construction proved to be advantageous for gripping and remains to this day.) The first balls made specifically for basketball were brown, and it was only in the late 1950s that Tony Hinkle, searching for a ball that would be more visible to players and spectators alike, introduced the orange ball that is now in common use. Dribbling was not part of the original game except for the “bounce pass” to teammates. Passing the ball was the primary means of ball movement.

Dribbling was eventually introduced but limited by the asymmetric shape of early balls. Dribbling only became a major part of the game around the 1950s, as manufacturing improved the ball shape.

The peach baskets were used until 1906 when they were finally replaced by metal hoops with backboards. A further change was soon made, so the ball merely passed through. Whenever a person got the ball in the basket, his team would gain a point. Whichever team got the most points won the game.

The baskets were originally nailed to the mezzanine balcony of the playing court, but this proved impractical when spectators in the balcony began to interfere with shots. The backboard was introduced to prevent this interference; it had the additional effect of allowing rebound shots.

Naismith’s handwritten diaries, discovered by his granddaughter in early 2006, indicate that he was nervous about the new game he had invented, which incorporated rules from a children’s game called duck on a rock, as many had failed before it.

Frank Mahan, one of the players from the original first game, approached Naismith after the Christmas break, in early 1892, asking him what he intended to call his new game.

Naismith replied that he hadn’t thought of it because he had been focused on just getting the game started.
Mahan suggested that it be called “Naismith ball”, at which he laughed, saying that a name like that would kill any game.
Mahan then said, “Why not call it basketball?” Naismith replied, “We have a basket and a ball, and it seems to me that would be a good name for it.”

The first official game was played in the YMCA gymnasium in Albany, New York, on January 20, 1892, with nine players.

The game ended at 1–0; the shot was made from 25 feet (7.6 m), on a court just half the size of a present-day Streetball or National Basketball Association (NBA) court.

At the time, football was being played with 10 to a team (which was increased to 11).

When winter weather got too icy to play football, teams were taken indoors, and it was convenient to have them split in half and play basketball with five on each side. By 1897–1898 teams of five became standard.

vitamin E

Because the vitamin activity was first identified in 1936 from a dietary fertility factor in rats, it was given the name “tocopherol” from the Greek words “τόκος” [tókos, birth], and “φέρειν”, [phérein, to bear or carry] meaning in sum

“to carry a pregnancy,”

with the ending “-ol” signifying its status as a chemical alcohol.

α-Tocopherol is the main source found in supplements and in the European diet, where the main dietary sources are olive and sunflower oils, while γ-tocopherol is the most common form in the American diet due to a higher intake of soybean and corn oil.

Tocotrienols, which are related compounds, also have vitamin E activity. All of these various derivatives with vitamin activity may correctly be referred to as “vitamin E”. Tocopherols and tocotrienols are fat-soluble antioxidants but also seem to have many other functions in the body.

Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that is involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body: it is a cofactor in DNA synthesis, and in both fatty acid and amino acid metabolism.

It is particularly important in the normal functioning of the nervous system via its role in the synthesis of myelin, and in the maturation of developing red blood cells in the bone marrow.

Vitamin B9

Folate, distinct forms of which are known as folic acid, folacin, and vitamin B9, is one of the B vitamins. It may be taken by mouth or by injection.

The recommended adult daily intake of folate in the U.S. is 400 micrograms from foods or dietary supplements. Folate in the form of folic acid is used to treat anemia caused by folic acid deficiency.

Folic acid is also used as a supplement by women during pregnancy to reduce the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) in the baby. Low levels in early pregnancy are believed to be the cause of more than half of babies born with NTDs.

More than 80 countries use fortification of certain foods with folic acid as a measure to decrease the rate of NTDs.

Long-term supplementation is also associated with small reductions in the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease.

Vitamin B7

Biotin is a water-soluble B vitamin, also called vitamin B7 and formerly known as vitamin H or coenzyme R.

It is involved in a wide range of metabolic processes, both in humans and in other organisms, primarily related to the utilization of fats, carbohydrates, and amino acids.

Biotin is an important component of enzymes involved in metabolizing fats and carbohydrates, influencing cell growth, and affecting amino acids involved in protein synthesis

It may also be helpful in maintaining a steady blood sugar level. Biotin is often recommended as a dietary supplement for strengthening hair and nails, though scientific data supporting these outcomes are weak. Nevertheless, biotin is found in many cosmetics and health products for the hair and skin.

Vitamin B6

Pyridoxine, also known as vitamin B6, is a form of vitamin B6 found commonly in food and used as dietary supplement.

As a supplement it is used to treat and prevent pyridoxine deficiency, sideroblastic anaemia, pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy, certain metabolic disorders, problems from isoniazid, and certain types of mushroom poisoning.

It is used by mouth or by injection.

Vitamin B1

Thiamine, also known as thiamin or vitamin B1, is a vitamin found in food, and manufactured as a dietary supplement and medication.

Food sources of thiamine include whole grains, legumes, and some meats and fish.

Grain processing removes much of the thiamine content, so in many countries cereals and flours are enriched with thiamine.

Supplements and medications are available to treat and prevent thiamine deficiency and disorders that result from it, including beriberi and Wernicke encephalopathy.

Other uses include the treatment of maple syrup urine disease and Leigh syndrome.

They are typically taken by mouth, but may also be given by intravenous or intramuscular injection.

Vitamin B2

Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement. Food sources include eggs, green vegetables, milk and other dairy product, meat, mushrooms, and almonds.

Some countries require its addition to grains
It is required by the body for cellular respiration.

Vitamin B3

Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and a form of vitamin B3, an essential human nutrient.

It belongs to the group of the pyridinecarboxylic acid.

Insufficient niacin in the diet can cause nausea, skin and mouth lesions, anemia, headaches, and tiredness.

Niacin and niacinamide are used for prevention and treatment of pellagra.

Vitamin A

Vitamin A is a group of unsaturated nutritional organic compounds that includes retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, and several provitamin A carotenoids (most notably beta-carotene).

Vitamin A has multiple functions. it is important for growth and development, for the maintenance of the immune system and good vision.

Vitamin A is needed by the retina of the eye in the form of retinal, which combines with protein opsin to form rhodopsin, the light-absorbing molecule
necessary for both low-light (scotopic vision) and color vision.

Retinol, also known as Vitamin A1, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.

As a supplement it is used to treat and prevent vitamin A deficiency, especially that which results in xerophthalmia. In areas where deficiency is common, a single large dose is recommended to those at high risk a couple of times a year.

It is also used to prevent further issues in those who have measles. It is used by mouth or injection into a muscle.

Carotenoids also called tetraterpenoids, are organic pigments that are produced by plants and algae, as well as several bacteria and fungi.

Carotenoids give the characteristic color to carrots, corn, canaries, and daffodils, as well as egg yolks, rutabagas, buttercups, and bananas.

Carotenoids can be produced from fats and other basic organic metabolic building blocks by all these organisms.

There are over 1100 known carotenoids; they are split into two classes, xanthophylls (which contain oxygen) and carotenes (which are purely hydrocarbon is, and contain no oxygen).

All are derivatives of tetraterpenes, meaning that they are produce from 8 isoprene molecules and contain 40 carbon atoms.

Carotenoids that contain unsubstituted beta-ionone rings (including beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin and gamma-carotene) have vitamin A activity (meaning that they can be converted to retinol), and these and other carotenoids can also act as antioxidants.

In the eye, lutein, meso-zeaxanthin, and zeaxanthin are present as macular pigments whose importance in visual function remains under clinical research in 2017.

Nutritional value of cucumber

Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is a widely cultivated plant in the gourd family, Cucurbitaceae.

It is a creeping vine that bears cucumiform fruits that are used as vegetables.

There are three main varieties of cucumber: slicing, pickling, and seedless. Within these varieties, several cultivars have been created.

In North America, the term “wild cucumber” refers to plants in the genera Echinocystis and Marah, but these are not closely related.

The cucumber is originally from South Asia, but now grows on most continents. Many different types of cucumber are traded on the global market.

Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)

Energy
65 kJ (16 kcal)

Carbohydrates
3.63 g

Sugars
1.67

Dietary fiber
0.5 g

Fat
0.11 g

Protein
0.65 g
Vitamins
Quantity %DV†

Thiamine (B1)
2% 0.027 mg

Riboflavin (B2)
3% 0.033 mg

Niacin (B3)
1% 0.098 mg

Pantothenic acid (B5)
5% 0.259 mg

Vitamin B6
3% 0.04 mg

Folate (B9)
2% 7 μg

Vitamin C
3% 2.8 mg

Vitamin K
16% 16.4 μg

Minerals
Quantity %DV†

Calcium
2% 16 mg

Iron
2% 0.28 mg

Magnesium
4% 13 mg

Manganese
4% 0.079 mg

Phosphorus
3% 24 mg

Potassium
3% 147 mg

Sodium
0% 2 mg

Zinc
2% 0.2 mg

Other constituents
Quantity

Water
95.23 g

Fluoride
1.3 µg

Botanically speaking, the cucumber is classified as a pepo, a type of botanical berry with a hard outer rind and no internal divisions. Much like tomato and squash, it is often perceived, prepared and eaten as a vegetable. Cucumber fruits consist of 95% water.

Read also: pawpaw – fruit taste and health benefit.

How to distressed denim jeans

Select the jeans you want to distress.

You can distress any type of jeans. Choose a pair of jeans you do not mind ripping or fraying. If you’ve never distressed jeans before, you may want to opt for old jeans you do not mind damaging.

Try on the denim and mark your jeans.

The easiest way to see where to distress your jeans is to try them on. Jeans fit everyone differently, so there is no precise rule of thumb regarding where, say, your knees will fall in the jeans. Try your jeans on and mark the areas where you want holes using a pen, marker, or piece of chalk.

Jeans are commonly distressed at the knees, back pockets, upper thighs, or at the sides. Mark which area you want to distress.

For example, if you’re distressing your upper thigh, think about where you would want the rips to show when wearing your jeans.

If you’ve never distressed jeans before, it is not advised that you distress the sides. Side seams are necessary to hold the jeans together so these areas can rip easily. If you do distress along the sides, only make a few tears.

Find a work station.

You should have a flat work station with good lighting. For example, distress your jeans at the kitchen counter. You should also lay something down, like a tarp, to catch any fabric scraps while you’re distressing your jeans.

Sandpaper the areas lightly

Sanding the jeans will make cutting and tweezing easier, so sand jeans if your jeans are very thick. Also, sanding can create a faded look. If you want faded colors on your jeans, use sandpaper to lightly sand the areas you’re distressing beforehand. Only sand the areas a bit, until the color is just faded and the fabric is worn down slightly.

Insert cardboard into the jeans.

Take a piece of cardboard and cut it until it fits into the pant legs of your jeans. Insert the cardboard into your jeans. This ensures you do not accidentally cut through to the backs of the jeans.

When distressing your back pocket, you can put a deck of cards or block of wood in the back pocket to protect your jeans.

Cut or scrape horizontal slits in the areas you’re distressing.

Use a shaving razor or a pair of scissors to distress your jeans.

If you want clean holes, cut horizontal lines across your jeans. If you want white threads to show, scrape the edge of the blade across the jean to expose white threads.

Keep your cuts half an inch to three quarters of an inch apart (about 1.3 to 2 centimeters).

Remember, only make a few cuts if you’re distressing the sides of jeans and stay away from the side seams.

Pull out individual threads with tweezers.

Once the cuts are made, pull away excess fabric with tweezers until the holes are covered by bare strands of thread. Pull out as many threads as you can, only working in the areas where you cut. Try to remove all the colored threads so only white elastic threads are spread across the holes.

You will not be able to remove all the colored portions of the thread. There may be some fuzz leftover around the edges of holes when you’re done as well. However, these come out in the wash, so do not worry if your jeans are not perfect the first time.

Clean up the area with a lint roller.

There is usually loose fabric and thread on the jeans after you cut and tweeze them. Take a lint roller and roll it over the areas where you distressed the jeans. Roll the lint roller as many times as you need to remove excess fabric.

Wash your jeans.

Washing the jeans right after distressing will help remove any more debris and thread. Use a cold wash to protect your jeans. Warm or hot water should not be used on distressed jeans. You can dry the jeans as you usually would before wearing them.

Special relativity

Special relativity (SR, also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the generally accepted and experimentally well-confirmed physical theory regarding the relationship between space and time.

In Albert Einstein’s original pedagogical treatment, it is based on two postulates:

The laws of physics are invariant (i.e., identical) in all inertial systems (i.e., non-accelerating frames of reference).

The speed of light in a vacuum is the same for all observers, regardless of the motion of the light source.

It was originally proposed by Albert Einstein in a paper published 26 September 1905 titled “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies”.

The inconsistency of Newtonian mechanics with Maxwell’s equations of electromagnetism and the lack of experimental confirmation for a hypothesized luminiferous aether led to the development of special relativity, which corrects mechanics to handle situations involving motions at a significant fraction of the speed of light (known as relativistic velocities).

As of today, special relativity is the most accurate model of motion at any speed when gravitational effects are negligible.

Even so, the Newtonian mechanics model is still useful as an approximation at small velocities relative to the speed of light, due to its simplicity and high accuracy within its scope.

Special relativity implies a wide range of consequences, which have been experimentally verified, including length contraction, time dilation, relativistic mass, mass–energy equivalence, a universal speed limit and relativity of simultaneity.

It has replaced the conventional notion of an absolute universal time with the notion of a time that is dependent on reference frame and spatial position. Rather than an invariant time interval between two events, there is an invariant spacetime interval.

Combined with other laws of physics, the two postulates of special relativity predict the equivalence of mass and energy, as expressed in the mass–energy equivalence formula E = mc2, where c is the speed of light in a vacuum.

Planck constant

The Planck constant (denoted h, also called Planck’s constant) is a physical constant that is the quantum of electromagnetic action, which relates the energy carried by a photon to its frequency. A photon’s energy is equal to its frequency multiplied by the Planck constant.

The Planck constant is of fundamental importance in quantum mechanics, and in metrology it is the basis for the definition of the kilogram.

At the end of the 19th century, physicists were unable to explain why the observed spectrum of black body radiation, which by then had been accurately measured, diverged significantly at higher frequencies from that predicted by existing theories. In 1900, Max Planck empirically derived a formula for the observed spectrum.

He assumed that a hypothetical electrically charged oscillator in a cavity that contained black body radiation could only change its energy in a minimal increment, E, that was proportional to the frequency of its associated electromagnetic wave.

He was able to calculate the proportionality constant, h, from the experimental measurements, and that constant is named in his honor. In 1905, the value E was associated by Albert Einstein with a “quantum” or minimal element of the energy of the electromagnetic wave itself.

The light quantum behaved in some respects as an electrically neutral particle, as opposed to an electromagnetic wave. It was eventually called a photon. Max Planck received the 1918 Nobel Prize in Physics “in recognition of the services he rendered to the advancement of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta”.

Since energy and mass are equivalent, the Planck constant also relates mass to frequency. By 2017, the Planck constant had been measured with sufficient accuracy in terms of the SI base units, that it was central to replacing the metal cylinder, called the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK), that had defined the kilogram since 1889.

The new definition was unanimously approved at the General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) on 16 November 2018 as part of the 2019 redefinition of SI base units.

For this new definition of the kilogram, the Planck constant, as defined by the ISO standard, was set to 6.62607015×10−34 J⋅s exactly.

The kilogram was the last SI base unit to be re-defined by a fundamental physical property to replace a physical artefact

E = mc2

This formula states that the equivalent energy (E) can be calculated as the mass multiplied by the speed of light (c = ~3×108 m/s) squared.

Similarly, anything having energy exhibits a corresponding mass m given by its energy E divided by the speed of light squared c2.

Because the speed of light is a very large number in everyday units, the formula implies that even an everyday object at rest with a modest amount of mass has a very large amount of energy intrinsically. Chemical, nuclear, and other energy transformations may cause a system to lose some of its energy content (and thus some corresponding mass), releasing it as the radiant energy of light or as thermal energy for example.

Mass–energy equivalence arose originally from special relativity as a paradox described by Henri Poincaré. Einstein proposed it on 21 November 1905, in the paper Does the inertia of a body depend upon its energy-content?, one of his Annus Mirabilis (Miraculous Year) papers.

Einstein was the first to propose that the equivalence of mass and energy is a general principle and a consequence of the symmetries of space and time.

A consequence of the mass–energy equivalence is that if a body is stationary, it still has some internal or intrinsic energy, called its rest energy, corresponding to its rest mass.

When the body is in motion, its total energy is greater than its rest energy, and equivalently its total mass (also called relativistic mass in this context) is greater than its rest mass.

This rest mass is also called the intrinsic or invariant mass because it remains the same regardless of this motion, even for the extreme speeds or gravity considered in special and general relativity.

The mass–energy formula also serves to convert units of mass to units of energy (and vice versa), no matter what system of measurement units is used.

The photoelectric Effect

The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons or other free carriers when light falls on a material. Electrons emitted in this manner can be called photoelectrons.

This phenomenon is commonly studied in electronic physics, as well as in fields of chemistry, such as quantum chemistry or electrochemistry.

According to classical electromagnetic theory, this effect can be attributed to the transfer of energy from the light to an electron.

From this perspective, an alteration in the intensity of light would induce changes in the kinetic energy of the electrons emitted from the metal.

Furthermore, according to this theory, a sufficiently dim light would be expected to show a time lag between the initial shining of its light and the subsequent emission of an electron.

However, the experimental results did not correlate with either of the two predictions made by classical theory.

Instead, electrons are dislodged only by the impingement of photons when those photons reach or exceed a threshold frequency (energy). Below that threshold, no electrons are emitted from the material regardless of the light intensity or the length of time of exposure to the light.

Rarely, an electron will escape by absorbing two or more quanta. However, this is extremely rare because by the time it absorbs enough quanta to escape, the electron will probably have emitted the rest of the quanta.

To make sense of the fact that light can eject electrons even if its intensity is low, Albert Einstein proposed that a beam of light is not a wave propagating through space, but rather a collection of discrete wave photons each with energy hν.

This shed light on Max Planck’s previous discovery of the Planck relation (E = hν) linking energy (E) and frequency (ν) as arising from quantization of energy. The factor h is known as the Planck constant.

General relativity

General relativity (GR, also known as the general theory of relativity or GTR) is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.

General relativity generalizes special relativity and Newton’s law of universal gravitation, providing a unified description of gravity as a geometric property of space and time, or spacetime.

In particular, the curvature of spacetime is directly related to the energy and momentum of whatever matter and radiation are present. The relation is specified by the Einstein field equations, a system of partial differential equations.

Some predictions of general relativity differ significantly from those of classical physics, especially concerning the passage of time, the geometry of space, the motion of bodies in free fall, and the propagation of light.

Examples of such differences include gravitational time dilation, gravitational lensing, the gravitational redshift of light, and the gravitational time delay. The predictions of general relativity in relation to classical physics have been confirmed in all observations and experiments to date.

Although general relativity is not the only relativistic theory of gravity, it is the simplest theory that is consistent with experimental data. However, unanswered questions remain, the most fundamental being how general relativity can be reconciled with the laws of quantum physics to produce a complete and self-consistent theory of quantum gravity.

Einstein’s theory has important astrophysical implications. For example, it implies the existence of black holes—regions of space in which space and time are distorted in such a way that nothing, not even light, can escape—as an end-state for massive stars.

There is ample evidence that the intense radiation emitted by certain kinds of astronomical objects is due to black holes; for example, microquasars and active galactic nuclei result from the presence of stellar black holes and supermassive black holes, respectively. The bending of light by gravity can lead to the phenomenon of gravitational lensing, in which multiple images of the same distant astronomical object are visible in the sky. General relativity also predicts the existence of gravitational waves, which have since been observed directly by the physics collaboration LIGO.

In addition, general relativity is the basis of current cosmological models of a consistently expanding universe.

Widely acknowledged as a theory of extraordinary beauty, general relativity has often been described as the most beautiful of all existing physical theories.

Choice of dresses for a tall girl

Embrace skinny jeans.

Skinny jeans and cigarette pants were basically made for tall women. Not only are they often cut longer, they look fabulous on girls with long legs. Even if the skinnies are a little short, you can cuff them and make it look intentional. Plus, it’s an opportunity to show off your shoes.

Don’t shy away from heels.
The truth is, wearing flats isn’t going to hide the fact that you’re tall. If you want to wear heels, do it! A heel can elongate your legs, lift your butt, and actually make your feet look smaller. Don’t pay attention to anyone who says you should not wear heels because of your height.

Start out with a shorter kitten heel if you don’t feel comfortable with full-on high heels.
A tall woman in heels appears confident, proud, and sexy.

Try high-waisted styles or a waist-cinching belt.
Create an hourglass figure and break up your length. This will help your body look proportional and shapely.

Tucking in your shirt can also give the same effect.
Go for large, statement accessories.
Large purses and totes can look overwhelming on smaller women, making it look like they’re playing dress up. A tall girl can really work bigger accessories, so go for that oversize tote or that big, statement necklace.
Have fun with color and patterns.

A tall frame is long enough to pull off patterns without being overwhelmed. Mix things up on your top and bottom half–so a patterned shirt with black pants, or different colored tops and bottoms–to break up your height.

Be aware that dressing all in one color (monochromatic) can make you look longer.

Pay attention to sleeve and hem length when shopping for shirts.

Sleeves and hems that are too short can give your shirt that “shrunken” appearance. Unless it’s a crop-top, look for shirts that at least hit you at the hip.

Look for 3/4 length sleeves or create them by rolling up sleeves that are just a little too short.

You might also try checking the men’s department. You may find shirts that fit you better and you can also go for a “boyfriend” shirt look.

Wear almost any length dress or skirt, just beware the too-short hemline.
A tall girl can rock a maxi dress like no other, or she can show off her killer legs something shorter. You probably don’t want to be flashing your booty or underwear, however, so pay attention to skirts and dresses that are so short they don’t cover the essentials. Remember a dress that is a flirty length on a shorter girl may look straight-up indecent on a taller girl.

A pencil skirt can make your legs look even longer, which is great if you have a long torso and shorter legs. Otherwise, pair a pencil skirt with a top in a contrasting color to keep your proportions balanced.

The most flattering skirt length on many people is usually just above, even with, or just below the knee.