Category Archives: Animals

10 Transparent Animals You Never Knew Existed

1. The Glasswinged butterfly

Greta oto (glasswinged butterfly) is a brush-footed butterfly.

The transparency of its wings results from the combination of three properties: first, from the low absorption of the visible light by the material constituting its wings, second, from the low scattering of the light passing through the wings and finally, from the low reflection of the light impinging on the wings surface.

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2. Juvenile Sharpear Enope squid


This is a juvenile sharpear enope squid (Ancistrocheirus lesueurii). Its transparent body is covered with polka dots of pigment-filled cells, and below its eyes are bioluminescent organs. They may be found throughout the tropical and subtropical oceans, often at depths of between 200-1000 metres.

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3. Transparent juvenile surgeonfish

This transparent fish is a juvenile Surgeonfish. They’re found in a wide range of waters including those around New Zealand. Believe it or not, it’s the same species of fish as Dory from Finding Nemo/Dory! They can grow up to 30cm (12 inches) long and are popular aquarium fish.

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4. Macropinna Microstoma

Macropinna microstoma is the only species of fish in the genus Macropinna, belonging to the Opisthoproctidae, the barreleye family. It is recognized for a highly unusual transparent, fluid-filled dome on its head, through which the lenses of its eyes can be seen. M. microstoma has been known to science since 1939, but is not known to have been photographed alive until 2004.

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5. Tortoise shell beetle

The tortoise shell beetle is not completely transparent, but it does have a carapace that is nearly invisible. The purpose of the transparent outer shell is to fool potential predators, as it reveals markings on its back that act as a warning. Tortoise beetles come in many different varieties, and the design under their clear shells can be distinct and beautiful.

Do All Snakes Lay Eggs?

If you want the short answer, then it’s no, not all snakes lay eggs and some types of snakes give birth to live young.

But most snakes do lay eggs while others will give birth to live young. Even more amazing is the facts that some types of snakes develop the eggs inside of the female body, but in the end, they give birth to live young.

Most snake species, around 70% of them reproduce by laying eggs, and 30% give birth to live young, like rattlesnakes, vipers, boas and most of the sea snake species. Read on to find out more amazing facts about snake reproduction.

So which snakes Lay Eggs?

The majority of the world’s snake species lay eggs, and includes members of the large Colubridae family that accounts for 2/3 of all snake species and members of the Elapidae family like cobras, adders, mambas, taipans, etc.

Most sea snakes give birth to live young, however one genus, Laticauda, which is oviparous, lay eggs on land, as opposed to giving live birth like the other sea snakes.

In most cases female snakes abandon the eggs shortly after laying them. But there are a few species that will actually coil around the eggs to incubate them, helping keep them warm until they are ready to hatch. The female of the highly venomous king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) builds a nest for the eggs, and even stays with their offspring for a while after the eggs have hatched.

And which Snakes Give Birth to Live Young?

There are 2 ways snakes give birth to live young viviparous (no eggs) and ovoviviparous (egg retained inside the female’s body) and both produce live and fully functional baby snakes. Most viper species, all of the rattlesnakes, members of the Boidae family like boa constrictors and anacondas like the green anaconda, give birth to live young.

The sea snakes are members of Hydrophiinae, a subfamily of the Elapidae family that also includes the venomous cobras, adders and mambas. With the exception of the genus Laticauda (as seen above) most sea snake species give birth to live young, this means the babies are born live in the water.

There is no parental protection when it comes to snakes, so when the baby snakes are born live, they are completely on their own. The hatchlings start their lives on their own shortly after birth, and must fend for themselves from day one. That’s why babies from venomous snakes like rattlesnakes are born “fully loaded” with fangs and venom, and capable of inflicting a deadly bite.

So how do snakes reproduce?

Well like other things it depends on the snake species, as we’ve seen most snakes lay eggs while others give birth to live young. It seems there’s only 2 ways snakes give birth, but in fact, snakes have 3 different methods for reproduction, read on to find out more.

Oviparous: Most snake species, around 70% are considered oviparous, which means they lay eggs. The eggs like those of birds must then be incubated, or at least kept warm, until the hatchlings are fully developed and ready to emerge from the shell.

From the Colubridae family almost all of its members lay eggs, including rat snakes, king snakes grass snakes and other species. The mambas, cobras, adders, and many other members of the Elapidae family are also oviparous.

Viviparous: In this reproductive method there’s no egg present at all, it’s the most similar to that of mammals, humans included. Snake species that are considered viviparous nourish their developing young through the placenta and a yolk sac.

This is something that is very unusual among reptiles. Boa constrictors and green anacondas are 2 examples of viviparous snakes, meaning they give birth to live offspring, and no eggs are involved at any stage of development.

Ovoviviparous: We can think of the ovoviviparous method as a “mix” between an egg layer snake species and one that gives birth to live young. In snake species that are ovoviviparous females develop the eggs inside their body. When the babies are born, the female is still retaining the eggs inside of her body.

Basically the eggs will hatch inside of the female and the baby snakes eventually emerge fully formed and active with no shell at all. The hatchlings are born alive and outside of their eggs. The many rattlesnake species are ovoviviparous, meaning they give birth to live young after developing and retaining the eggs inside their bodies.

Know more about the Bear

Bears are carnivoran mammals of the family Ursidae. They are classified as caniforms, or doglike carnivorans. Although only eight species of bears are extant, they are widespread, appearing in a wide variety of habitats throughout the Northern Hemisphere and partially in the Southern Hemisphere. Bears are found on the continents of North America, South America, Europe, and Asia.

Common characteristics of modern bears include large bodies with stocky legs, long snouts, small rounded ears, shaggy hair, plantigrade paws with five nonretractile claws, and short tails.

While the polar bear is mostly carnivorous, and the giant panda feeds almost entirely on bamboo, the remaining six species are omnivorous with varied diets.

With the exception of courting individuals and mothers with their young, bears are typically solitary animals. They may be diurnal or nocturnal and have an excellent sense of smell. Despite their heavy build and awkward gait, they are adept runners, climbers, and swimmers. Bears use shelters, such as caves and logs, as their dens; most species occupy their dens during the winter for a long period of hibernation, up to 100 days.

Bears have been hunted since prehistoric times for their meat and fur; they have been used for bear-baiting and other forms of entertainment, such as being made to dance. With their powerful physical presence, they play a prominent role in the arts, mythology, and other cultural aspects of various human societies. In modern times, bears have come under pressure through encroachment on their habitats and illegal trade in bear parts, including the Asian bile bear market. The IUCN lists six bear species as vulnerable or endangered, and even least concern species, such as the brown bear, are at risk of extirpation in certain countries. The poaching and international trade of these most threatened populations are prohibited, but still ongoing.

Size

The bear family includes the most massive extant terrestrial members of the order Carnivorans. The polar bear is considered to be the largest extant species, with adult males weighing 350–700 kg (772–1,543 lb) and measuring 2.4–3 metres (7 ft 10 in–9 ft 10 in) in total length.[48] The smallest species is the sun bear, which ranges 25–65 kg (55–143 lb) in weight and 100–140 cm (39–55 in) in length. Prehistoric North and South American short-faced bears were the largest species known to have lived.

The latter estimated to have weighed 1,600 kg (3,500 lb) and stood 3.4 m (11 ft) tall. Body weight varies throughout the year in bears of temperate and arctic climates, as they build up fat reserves in the summer and autumn and lose weight during the winter.

Feeding

Most bears are opportunistic omnivores and consume more plant than animal matter. They eat anything from leaves, roots, and berries to insects, carrion, fresh meat, and fish, and have digestive systems and teeth adapted to such a diet. At the extremes are the almost entirely herbivorous giant panda and the mostly carnivorous polar bear. However, all bears feed on any food source that becomes seasonally available. For example, Asiatic black bears in Taiwan consume large numbers of acorns when these are most common, and switch to ungulates at other times of the year.

When foraging for plants, bears choose to eat them at the stage when they are at their most nutritious and digestible, typically avoiding older grasses, sedges and leaves.Hence, in more northern temperate areas, browsing and grazing is more common early in spring and later becomes more restricted. Knowing when plants are ripe for eating is a learned behaviour. Berries may be foraged in bushes or at the tops of trees, and bears try to maximize the number of berries consumed versus foliage. In autumn, some bear species forage large amounts of naturally fermented fruits, which affects their behavior.

Smaller bears climb trees to obtain mast (edible reproductive parts, such as acorns). Such masts can be very important to the diets of these species, and mast failures may result in long-range movements by bears looking for alternative food sources. Brown bears, with their powerful digging abilities, commonly eat roots. The panda’s diet is over 99% bamboo, of 30 different species. Its strong jaws are adapted for crushing the tough stems of these plants, though they prefer to eat the more nutritious leaves. Bromeliads can make up to 50% of the diet of the spectacled bear, which also has strong jaws to bite them open.

Brown bear feeding on infrequent, but predictable, salmon migrations in Alaska
The sloth bear, though not as specialised as polar bears and the panda, has lost several front teeth usually seen in bears, and developed a long, suctioning tongue to feed on the ants, termites, and other burrowing insects they favour. At certain times of the year, these insects can make up 90% of their diets.

Some species may raid the nests of wasps and bees for the honey and immature insects, in spite of stinging from the adults. Sun bears use their long tongues to lick up both insects and honey. Fish are an important source of food for some species, and brown bears in particular gather in large numbers at salmon runs.

Typically, a bear plunges into the water and seizes a fish with its jaws or front paws. The preferred parts to eat are the brain and eggs. Small burrowing mammals like rodents may be dug out and eaten.

The brown bear and both species of black bears sometimes take large ungulates, such as deer and bovids, mostly the young and weak.These animals may be taken by a short rush and ambush, though hiding young may be stiffed out and pounced on.The polar bear mainly preys on seals, stalking them from the ice or breaking into their dens. They primarily eat the highly digestible blubber.

Large mammalian prey is typically killed by a bite to the head or neck, or (in the case of young) simply pinned down and mauled. Predatory behaviour in bears is typically taught to the young by the mother.

Bears are prolific scavengers and kleptoparasites, stealing food caches from rodents, and carcasses from other predators. For hibernating species, weight gain is important as it provides nourishment during winter dormancy. A brown bear can eat 41 kg (90 lb) of food and gain 2–3 kg (4.4–6.6 lb) of fat a day prior to entering its den.

Do you know the Liger?

The liger is a hybrid offspring of a lion and a tigeress. The liger is distinct and different from the similar hybrid tigon which is a male tiger and, and is the largest of all known felines.

They enjoy swimming, which is a characteristic of tigers, and are very sociable like lions. Notably, ligers typically grow larger than either parent species, unlike tigons.

Liger|(Photo by Yuri Smityuk\TASS via Getty Images)
(Photo by Yuri Smityuk\TASS via Getty Images)

Males reach a total length of 3 to 3.6 m (9.8 to 11.8 ft), which means that they rival even large male lions and tigers in length.

The Liger
(Photo by Yuri Smityuk\TASS via Getty Images)

Other big cat hybrids can reach similar sizes; the litigon, a rare hybrid of a male lion and a female tigon, is roughly the same size as the liger, with a male named Cubanacan (at the Alipore Zoo in India) reaching 363 kg (800 lb).

It is wrongly believed that ligers continue to grow throughout their lives due to hormonal issues. It may be that they simply grow far more during their growing years and take longer to reach their full adult size.

Further growth in shoulder height and body length is not seen in ligers over 6 years old, as in both lions and tigers. Male ligers also have the same levels of testosterone on average as an adult male lion, yet are azoospermic in accordance with Haldane’s rule.

In addition, female ligers may also attain great size, weighing approximately 320 kg (705 lb) and reaching 3.05 m (10 ft) long on average, and are often fertile.

Ligers are about the same size as the prehistoric Smilodon populator and American lion.

How Dangerous Is A Viper?

The Viperidae are a family of venomous snakes found in most parts of the world, with the exception of Antarctica, Australia, Hawaii, Madagascar, New Zealand, various other isolated islands, and north of the Arctic Circle. All have relatively long, hinged fangs that permit deep penetration and injection of snake venom.

The Viper | Credit: Mark Kostich(Getty Images)

How Dangerous Is A Viper Snake?

The Saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus) is small, but its unpredictability, aggressive temper, and lethal venom potency make it very dangerous. This species is one of the fastest strikingsnakes in the world, and mortality rates for those bitten are very high.

How Poisonous Is A Viper?

A viper has a stocky body, a wide head, and long, hinged fangs at the front of its mouth for injecting venom. The venomcauses a very painful wound that can be fatal.

How Long Does It Take For a viper To Kill A Human Being?

Given how quickly its venom can kill (as quickly as 10 minutes, though sometimes it takes a few hours, depending on how much is injected; the average time until death after a bite is around 30-60 minutes), around 95% of people still die from Black Mamba bites usually due to being unable to get the anti-venom …

Can you survive a viper bite?

Most snakes are harmless to humans, and even dangerously venomous ones are unlikely to bite us or to inject muchvenom. But the saw-scaled viper is a rare exception. … It devastates the tissues around the site of the bite, so that even if people survive, they can still lose fingers, toes, or entire limbs.

The fastest snake in the world is also one of the deadest. The black mamba(Dendroaspis polylepis) can move at speeds of up to 12.5 miles per hour (5.5 meters per second), and its bite can kill a human being in less than 30 minutes.

See the world most expensive christmas tree the PRICE will SHOCK You.

World most expensive Christmas Tree filled with precious stones and jewelries worth $15 million dollars, this tree equals to=

  • A Average Mansion = $5,000,000
  • Bugatti Veyron= $3,000,000
  • 500 iPhone11 Pro Max= $545,500
  • 2000 Airpods Pro= $480,000
  • Lamborghini’s Veneno Roadster= $5.45 million
  • 1,750 Play Station 4 = 525,000

These are things that can be acquired in place of a standing Christmas Tree.

This Christmas, visitors to the Kempinski Hotel Bahia, near Marbella, Spain will be treated to the sight of the hotel’s c hristmas tree, decked out with diamonds, precious stones and designer jewelry.
The tree is dripping with diamonds, sapphires and designer jewelry.

Credit: Kempinski Hotel Bahia

The tree is decorated with red, white, pink and black diamonds, the tree, designed by Debbie Wingham, is worth a staggering £11.9 million ($15 million), according to the hotel.
As well as diamonds, the tree is embellished with upcycled jewelry from Bulgari, Cartier, Van Cleef & Arpels and Chanel, 3D-printed chocolate peacocks, feathers, ostrich eggs and bottles of perfume.

Read also: Most expensive football

The world most expensive christmas tree also worth the price of Taylor Swift mansion, we expect to see more surprising and expensive things and decorations this season of Christmas.

The Golden Poisonous Frog

The golden poison frog (Phyllobates terribilis), also known as the golden frog, golden poison arrow frog, or golden dart frog, is a poison dart frogendemic to the Pacific coast of Colombia. The optimal habitat of P. terribilis is the rainforest with high rain rates (5 m or more per year), altitudes between 100 and 200 m, temperatures of at least 26 °C, and relative humidity of 80–90%. In the wild, P. terribilis is a social animal, living in groups of up to six individuals; however, captive P. terribilis specimens can live in much larger groups. These frogs are often considered innocuous due to their small size and bright colours, but wild frogs are lethally toxic.


Distribution and habitat

The golden poison frog is endemic to humid forests of the Pacific coast of colombia in the cauca and valle del cauca department. Its range is less than 5,000 square km. It is only known from primary forest. The eggs are laid on the ground; the males transport the taptoad to permanent pools.

Description

P. terribilis is the largest species of poison dart frog, and can reach a size of 55 mm as adults, with females typically being larger than males. Like all poison dart frogs, the adults are brightly colored, but they lack the dark spots present in many other dendrobatids. The frog’s colour pattern is aposematic(which is a warning coloration to warn predators of its toxicity). The frog has tiny adhesive disks on its toes, which aid climbing of plants. It also has a bone plate in the lower jaw, which gives it the appearance of having teeth, a distinctive feature not observed in the other species of Phyllobates. The frog is normally diurnal. P. terribilis occurs in three different color varieties or morphs:

Mint green morph

The largest morph of P. terribilis exists in the La Brea area of Colombia, and is the most common form seen in captivity. The name “mint green” is actually rather misleading, as the frogs of this morph can be metallic green, pale green, or white.

Yellow

The yellow morph is the reason it has the common name golden poison dart frog. Yellow P. terribilis specimens are found in Quebrada Guangui, Colombia. These frogs can be pale yellow to deep, golden yellow in color. A frog sold under the name “gold terribilis” was once believed to be a deeper yellow P. terribilis. However, genetic tests have proven these frogs to be uniform-colored morphs of Phyllobates bicolor.

Orange

While not as common as the other two morphs, orange examples of P. terribilisexist in Colombia, as well. They tend to be a metallic orange or yellow-orange in color, with varying intensity.

Poison

The golden poison frog’s skin is densely coated in an alkaloid toxin, one of a number of poisons common to dart frogs (batrachotoxins). This poison prevents its victim’s nerves from transmitting impulses, leaving the muscles in an inactive state of contraction, which can lead to heart failure or fibrillation. Alkaloid batrachotoxins can be stored by frogs for years after the frog is deprived of a food-based source, and such toxins do not readily deteriorate, even when transferred to another surface.

The golden poison frog is not venomous, but poisonous: venomous animals have a delivery method for the toxin, such as fangs or spines, while poisonous animals and plants do not have a delivery method and rely on transference of the toxin, typically by, but not limited to, ingestion. Like most poison dart frogs, P. terribilis uses poison only as a self-defense mechanism and not for killing prey.The average dose carried will vary between locations, and consequent local diet, but the average wild P. terribilis is generally estimated to contain about one milligram of poison, enough to kill about 10,000 mice. This estimate will vary in turn, but most agree this dose is enough to kill between 10 and 20 humans, which correlates to up to two African bull elephants.This is roughly 15,000 humans per gram.

Know More About: The Scorpions 🦂

Scorpions are predatory arachnids of the orderScorpiones. They have eight legs and are easily recognized by the pair of grasping pedipalps and the narrow, segmented tail, often carried in a characteristic forward curve over the back, ending with a venomous stinger. Scorpions range in size from 9 mm / 0.3 in to 23 cm / 9 in.

The evolutionary history of scorpions goes back to the Silurian period 430 million years ago. They have adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions, and they can now be found on all continents except Antarctica. Scorpions number about 1,750 described species, with 13 extant (living) families recognised to date.

The taxonomy has undergone changes and is likely to change further, as genetic studies are bringing forth new information.
All scorpions have a venomous sting, but the vast majority of the species do not represent a serious threat to humans, and in most cases, healthy adults do not need any medical treatment after being stung.Only about 25 species are known to have venom capable of killing a human. In some parts of the world with highly venomous species, human fatalities regularly occur, primarily in areas with limited access to medical treatment

Thirteen families and about 1,750 described species and subspecies of scorpions are known. In addition, 111 described taxa of scorpions are extinct.
This classification is based on that of Soleglad and Fet (2003), which replaced the older, unpublished classification of Stockwell. Additional taxonomic changes are from papers by Soleglad et al. (2005).

Top ten poisonous spiders (photos)

Brazilian Wandering Spider, (Phoneutria bahiensis)

Black Widow, (Latrodectus mactans)

Mouse spider, (Missulena)

Brown Widow, (Latrodectus geometricus.)

Goliath Birdeater Tarantula, (Theraphosa blondi.)

Brown Recluse, (Loxosceles reclusa)

Six-Eyed Sand Spider, (Sicarius hahni)

Sydney Funnel-Web Spider, (Atrax robustus.)

Hobo Spider, (Tegenaria agrestis.)

Redback Spider, (Latrodectus hasselti)

How to prevent rat infestation in your homes🐭

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The last thing you will ever want is when these creatures get an access into your home. They multiply at such an alarming rate needing more food and eating their way into your furnitures, even going as far as eating wires of your electrical appliances.

Here are some tips you can use to keep this creatures away from your home:

Keep all trash sealed and take it out anytime you throw food away.

Avoid giving rats a reason to hang around your house. Make sure that you use a garbage can, don’t just leave your trash hanging out in a garbage bag. When you throw the garbage bag out put it in a dumpster or a closed garbage bin for disposal. If it is just hanging out around your house it’s easy access for rats.

Seal up all the food in your house and keep everything in closed containers.

If the food is left hanging out in the open it could attract rats or other pests. Try to keep your house generally clean and definitely pay close attention to where you leave your food. If you live in an area that is prone to rat problems like a city then be extra careful.

Remove any ability for rats to enter your home by sealing all holes in your walls, doors and screens.

Check your garage doors, chimneys, dryer and air conditioning vents, and crawl spaces to ensure that they are properly sealed to the outdoors. If a rat can find its way in your house then they can set up shop and start breeding. The best thing you can do is prevent that.

Stuff the area surrounding any pipes or small holes that lead into your house using bronze or steel wool.

This will stop the rats from entering in through easy access holes. You can also close off the entrance completely if the pipe or entrance serves no purpose.

Do not bother using products that are marketed as “rat repellents.”

These are often not useful and the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has issued warnings against fraudulent sound machines that claim to repel rats and rodents.

How to get rid of rats in your home

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The rats are in? Oh no! Well you’re in luck because here are some tips you can use to get rid of them;

Getting rid of rats Humanely:

Identify the rat’s feeding and nesting areas.

Remember to identify these areas by paying attention to where you notice rat droppings or areas that have been chewed. If the rats were in the area before, they probably will be in the area again. If they are living in your attic try to find the entrances they are using and set the traps there.

Use a nonlethal wire cage to trap and release rats if you want to avoid killing them.

Experts consider this the most humane way to get rid of rats. Set a cage with a little bit of food inside of it. The spring release door will trap the rat as soon as it is inside the cage. You will then have to pick up the cage and release the rat somewhere.

Release the rats far away from your home.

Bring them out into the woods somewhere a good distance from your house. You don’t want to worry about them finding their way back to your home and returning.

They’ll find a new home somewhere, hopefully not where a person is already living.

Getting rids of rats lethally:

Get a cat.

They are great hunters and natural rat predators. You will still be killing the rats indirectly but it won’t cause them great pain. This is just a way of initiating the natural cycle. A good cat will clean up your rat infestation in just a few weeks. Just remember a cat will not be able to catch a rat that is in the attic or behind a wall.

Identify the rats’ feeding and nesting places.

You will know where they have been by rat droppings you notice or by the holes chewed in walls, food boxes, insulation and other places in your home. This is where you’ll want to leave the traps.

Leave rat poison or traditional snapping rattraps in rat-infested areas.

You can purchase these from hardware stores and other retailers if you decide you want to kill the rats. You can also purchase online. Be aware that rat poison does not kill a rat instantly, it can take up to a week to kill the rat. The rat will be in immense pain during this week, so keep that in mind.

Read the instructions and cautions carefully. Most rat poisons include warfarin, which causes internal bleeding and other drugs that kill rats, but can also be harmful to pets and people.

Check the traps regularly.

A rat corpse will give off an unpleasant odor if you do not remove it immediately. Traditional snapping traps are much more humane than rat poison, as it should kill the rat immediately.

However, in some cases it can only severely injure the rat, in which case you should put it out of its misery.

Use glue boards to get rid of rats.

These are flat, sticky pieces of wood that trap rats until you can remove them. Once again, make sure that you only set glue boards if you intend to kill the rats.

These rats are not going to survive, as there’s no way to get them off the glue board. Some rats will chew off their feet or legs in order to escape from the trap and others will get their head trapped in the glue and suffocate. It is not the most humane way to get rid of rats but it will work. If you find a rat in a glue trap that has not been killed, you’ll have to stomp on it with a boot to kill it.

It’s either that or hitting it on the head with something hard like bat. Do whatever you can di and then toss the rat in an outdoor trash can.

International Dog Day🐕(August 26)

National Dog Day on August 26th encourages dog ownership of all breeds. While seeking a new companion, be sure to consider the mutts, mixes, purebreds, and everything in between.

Whether mixed or purebred, embrace the opportunity for all dogs to live a happy, safe, and abuse-free life. They all give us companionship. Additionally, they keep us safe, and they aid those in need. Dogs play. Well, they play many roles in our lives, too! They keep us healthy, both physically and mentally.

While many days aim to find loving homes for dogs, this day expands that consideration to look beyond the breed. Look into the heart of the animal. The purpose of the National Dog Day Foundation is to rescue 10,000 dogs each year.

National Day Calendar

Happy International Dog Day 🐕

The Arizona bark scorpion

The Arizona bark scorpion is a small light brown scorpion common to the Sonoran Desert in southwest United States and northwestern Mexico. An adult male can reach 8 cm in length (3.14 inches), while a female is slightly smaller, with a maximum length of 7 cm (2.75 inches).

Bark scorpions are eaten by a wide variety of animals such as birds (especially owls), reptiles, and other vertebrates. Some examples include spiders, snakes, peccaries, rodents, and other scorpions.

The painful and potentially deadly venom of bark scorpions has little effect on grasshopper mice. Scientists have found the scorpion toxin acts as an analgesic rather than a pain stimulant in grasshopper mice.

Read also: The golden poisenous frog

Life cycle

Arizona bark scorpions have a gestation period of several months, are born live, and are gently guided onto their mother’s back. The female usually gives birth to anywhere from 25 to 35 young. These remain with their mother until their first molt, which can be up to 3 weeks after birth. Arizona bark scorpions may live up to 6 years.

Habitat

The bark scorpion is particularly well adapted to the desert: layers of wax on its exoskeleton make it resistant to water loss. Nevertheless, bark scorpions hide during the heat of the day, typically under rocks, wood piles, or tree bark. Bark scorpions do not burrow, and are commonly found in homes, requiring only 1/16 of an inch for entry.

Arizona bark scorpions prefer riparian areas with mesquite, cottonwood, and sycamore groves, all of which have sufficient moisture and humidity to support insects and other prey species.

Centruroides scorpions are unusual in that they are the only genus in the southwest that can climb walls, trees, and other objects with a sufficiently rough surface. Bark scorpions practice negative geotaxis, preferring an upside down orientation, which often results in people being stung due to the scorpion being on the underside of an object.

Venom

The bark scorpion is the most venomous scorpion in North America, and its venom can cause severe pain (coupled with numbness, tingling, and vomiting) in adult humans, typically lasting between 24 and 72 hours.

Temporary dysfunction in the area stung is common; e.g. a hand or possibly arm can be immobilized or experience convulsions. It also may cause loss of breath for a short time. Due to the extreme pain induced, many victims describe sensations of electrical jolts after envenomation.

Fatalities from scorpion envenomation in the USA are rare and are limited to small animals (including small pets), small children, the elderly, and adults with compromised immune systems.

Extreme reaction to the venom is indicated by numbness, frothing at the mouth, paralysis, and a neuromotor syndrome that may be confused with a seizure and that may make breathing difficult, particularly for small children.

First aid

Basic first aid measures can be used to help remediate scorpion stings:

  • Clean sting site with soap and water
  • Apply a cool compress (cool cloth)
  • Take paracetamol or ibuprofen for local pain and swelling

Medical emergencies

Since the amount of venom a scorpion injects varies, Arizona poison control centers suggest immediate medical attention only in the event of extreme pain or stings involving weaker individuals.

Physical barriers

Scorpions are unable to climb smooth surfaces such as glass, ptfe, polished metals. Many place legs of beds, cribs, and furniture in glass jars. Surrounding a structure such as a home with a glass strip barrier eliminates the entry of scorpions completely.

All scorpions including Bark Scorpions are lacking the anatomical feature arolia. Without this the ability to climb smooth surfaces is impossible.

Know More About Panthers

A black panther is the melanistic colour variant of any Panthers species. Black panthers in Asia and Africa are leopards, and those in the Americas are jaguars.

Are Panthers dangerous?

Panthers are now so rare, and so stealthy, that they are rarely seen by humans at all. For this reason, they are known as the ghosts of the forest. Panthers are now considered to be endangered, since, although they are not a distinct species, both leopards and jaguars are considered to be threatened.

What exactly is a panther?

The animal known as a “panther”actually refers to 3 different types of big cats, leopards (Panthers pardus) or jaguars (Panthers onca) that have a black or white color mutation and a subspecies of the cougar (Puma councilor). The “black panther” is a black jaguar of the Americas or a black leopard of Asia and Africa.

Are Panthers aggressive?

The Panther is an incredibly powerful and fearless animal that is feared by many due to the fact that they are also very aggressive. The Panther is very territorial particularly males whose home ranges overlap those of a number of females and they are threatened by another male.

Will Panthers attack humans?

While farm animals fare poorly when panthers are about, the cats usually give humans a wide berth. A Conservation Commission spokeswoman backed up Berger on, confirming to polite fact Florida that in modern times, there had never been a verified panther attack on a human in the state.

How do Panthers hunt?

When hunting, panthers stalk their prey, moving silently and then freezing their motion to avoid detection. Unlike dogs and wolves, that chase their prey until it tires, panthers rush short distances and spring as far as 15 feet for the kill.

Megalodon

Megalodon” is the common name for Carcharocles Megalodon, a truly gigantic predatory shark that went extinct long ago. Thanks to urban legends, and the popularity of movies like The Meg, Megalodon is once again in the public eye. We’re here to help separate the fact from the fiction and help dispell the myths about this giant prehistoric shark.

Here’s what you need to know, why it was an awesome animal and why you don’t have to worry about it still existing.

Many people/scientist ask lot of question about this fish cause lies are too much.

Questions like

-Was Megalodon the largest predator alive?

-What do Megalodon eat

-do they really cut/bite whale to half with their teeth?

And so many more

Was Megalodon the largest predator ever?

The best current estimates put Megalodon at a maximum size of about just under 18 metres in length, with a weight of 30 to 50 tons. It is important to remember that because sharks do not have bone skeletons, no Megalodon skeleton fossil has ever been found and these estimates are based almost entirely on their tooth size and by using the size of these teeth as a comparison to other sharks.While the Megalodon was certainly the largest shark known to have ever lived, it was not the only contender for biggest fish! Leedsichthys problematicus, meaning “Alfred Leeds’s problems causing fish”, was another prehistoric ocean giant. Estimates put Leedsichthys at approximately 16.5m long, substantially larger than the average Megalodon. Although huge, this fish was probably a filter feeder, not a predator.In fact, Megalodon might not even have been the largest predator in the ocean at the time it was alive – the recently discovered Leviathan whale (liyanthan Melville ) was potentially larger than Megalodon and occupied the same territorial waters. The Leviathan was likely a close ancestor of modern sperm whales, but it was a true apex predator with the largest teeth of any known animal (more than twice the size of the Megalodon) and likely used a similar hunting strategy

Estimates of the first Leviathan found put it at a maximum size of 17.5m, although since then larger specimens have been discovered (but, at the time of writing, these findings were unpublished in scientific literature). In fact, although Leviathan was huge – we don’t need to look back in time to find a predatory whale larger than Megalodon: Present-day sperm whales have been recorded reaching 20.7m – far longer than Megalodon

Read also: what is the largest snake?

The special teeth

Depicts a Megalodon biting a glass window of a giant submarine – leaving a huge tooth impression. Megalodon may have had the most powerful bite in the animal kingdom, but that cinematic move would simply have shattered every tooth in its mouth, leaving with windows completely unaffected.Normal glass has a Moh’s hardness 5.5 and tooth enamel is lower at just 5. In fact, even human teeth are stronger than that of sharks Megalodon tooth fossils are common – in fact, they were used as jewelry by native Americans for more than 10 000 years. Megalodon had approximately 276 teeth, arranged in five rows in each jaw. These rows enabled Megalodon to constantly shed worn out teeth and replace them with new, sharp ones – something that our ragged -teeth do too.

How to get rid of raccoons

The results of a nocturnal raccoon raid on a trash can are often quite devastating: smelly trash strewn all over a lawn, an unsightly and unsanitary mess. Fortunately, there are several strategies you can employ to keep these devious creatures from having their way.

Keeping Raccoons Out of Your Trash

Secure trash can lids.

Use a rope, chain or bungee cord to tie the lid into a secure position. Alternatively, you could weigh down the lids with weights, bricks, or other heavy objects. Aim for about 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of weight to prevent the strongest adult raccoons from getting in.

You could also purchase trash cans with latches or locks if they’re within your budget.
“If a raccoon finds food in your trash can once, it will keep coming back, and it may knock over the can to get to the food inside.”

Clean out your trash cans.

Wash them out with the hose every week or so. Sprinkle the inside with baking soda to remove any lingering food odors.

Tip them upside down so they don’t store water for mosquitoes or for raccoons to drink.

Don’t put out the trash at night.

Raccoons are active at night, and trash cans are among their favorite “hunting grounds.” To prevent them from breaking into your trash, store your cans in the garage or other indoor location. Take them out to the curb the morning of your scheduled pickup.

Double bag food scraps.

Raccoons have a very keen sense of smell that allow them to detect food sources from far away. Double bagging will help to contain food odors. This is especially helpful if you absolutely must keep your trash outside the night before the next garbage pickup.

Identify points of entry.

Inspect your house, garage, and fence.

Look for holes 3 inches (7.6 cm) in diameter or bigger. Check downspouts for scratches and body oil stains where racoons might have been climbing. If they’re in your attic, look under nooks, dormers, or broken vents. If you hear them in your crawl space, look for broken vents or borrows. It might also help to check for footprints, especially if recent rains have created muddy conditions.

Avoid shutting out racoons during their nesting season.

If a raccoon finds an opening where it can get into your roof, it can cause big problems. Raccoons can transmit diseases, spread fleas, chew on your wires, and mess up your roof.

One way to get rid of them is to install a one-way gate so they can get out but not back in again. However, it’s best to do that in the season when raccoons don’t have babies, because the babies can’t walk for the first two months of their life.”

Identify nesting areas.

Raccoons don’t use nesting materials like birds do. The only way to identify a nest is by the fecal matter they leave. Look for brown cylindrical objects with digested berries. Raccoon feces look similar to those left by small dogs. When in doubt, contact your local extension office.

Repel raccoons from entry points and nesting areas.

Boil one cup of cayenne pepper and 3-5 chopped habanero chilis with water in a pot and let it cool. Transfer it into a spray bottle. Spray the entry points you’ve identified. Because raccoons follow their noses, this spray will make their nesting area unbearable.

Use goggles and a respirator before spraying in enclosed areas. Although hot peppers are technically non-toxic, they can irritate mucous membranes in your eyes and mouth.

Identify the main entry point.

Check around your roof, foundation, or siding. Look for telltale signs like freshly dug holes, nesting materials, dirt stains, or hair stuck to the entry point. If the point of entry is in or near your foundation, you can also check for paw prints in the soil.

Close off most points of entry.

Make sure the raccoons have left the area before you seal off any openings. You’re most likely to find an empty space if you start working between 8:00 and 11:00pm, when most raccoons are out scavenging.

Cover the entry points with 0.5 inches (1.3 cm) of wire meshing. Then, seal the mesh with a foam or caulking gun.

Use newspaper on the main entry point. Wait until between 8:00 and 11:00pm. Stuff the newspaper lightly into the opening. Check the newspaper in the morning. If it’s been moved, the raccoons might have left. Put it back in place. Continue to monitor the area for 48 hours. If the newspaper is still in place, you can permanently seal the hole.

If it has been moved, the raccoon(s) might be back. Check if you’re dealing with a mother and her young. If this is the case, let the young grow up so that the mother can move them on her own. If you find abandoned young, call your local wildlife rehabilitation center for assistance.

If no young are on site, hire a professional to install a one-way door that will allow raccoons to exit but not re-enter.
Don’t permanently block any vents with newspaper.

Seal off your yard.

Raccoons can easily scale wood or metal fences. They also use nearby tree limbs or shrubs to help them over fences. Run electrified wires at the top and bottom of your fence to deter intrusions. Prune tree limbs near fences.

If you decide to replace your fence, make sure the mesh is no wider than 3 inches (7.6 cm). This will prevent young raccoons from entering your yard.

Removing Food Sources

Clean up all food debris from your yard.

Sweep up berries that fell from trees. Make sure that any picnic tables and chairs (or anything else outside) are completely free of food scraps and crumbs. Clean the area completely. Double check the area after you finish.

Pay attention to pet food.

Raccoons are omnivores, so they won’t pass up any dog- or cat food scraps left outdoors. You can avoid this problem entirely by feeding your companion animals indoors. If you must feed your pet outside, clean up every last scrap of wet or dry food when meal time is over. If you have a doggie door or cat flap, keep food bowls far away from these access points.

Keep bird feeders out of their reach.

Even a bird feeder with sunflower seeds might be tempting to a raccoon. Hang your bird feeder on a pole about 0.5 inches (1.3 cm) in diameter. Raccoons can’t climb such skinny poles. Secure the pole firmly so that it can’t be knocked over. Store any bird seed in metal trash cans or an indoor locations that raccoons can’t access.

If this isn’t an option, lock up your bird feeder in the garage or tool shed just before sundown.

Protect your fish pond.

As omnivores, raccoons love to fish. Place cinder blocks, ceramic pipes, and wire baskets in the pond. These will provide hiding places for your fish.

You can also install metal leaf netting over your fish pond. Buy the strongest material available to support the raccoon’s weight.

German Shepherd

The German Shepherd is a breed of medium to big-sized working dog that originated in Germany. In the English language, the breed’s officially recognized name is German Shepherd Dog (sometimes abbreviated as GSD).

The breed was officially known as the Alsatian in Britain from after the First World War until 1977 when its name was changed back to German Shepherd.

Despite its primitive, wolf-like appearance the German Shepherd is a relatively modern breed of dog, with their origin dating to 1899. As part of the Herding Group, German Shepherds are working dogs developed originally for herding sheep. Since that time however, because of their strength, intelligence, trainability, and obedience, German Shepherds around the world are often the preferred breed for many types of work, including disability assistance, search-and-rescue, police and military roles, and acting.

The German Shepherd is the second-most registered breed by the American Kennel Club and seventh-most registered breed by The Kennel Club in the United Kingdom.

Know more about the; Stingrays

Stingrays are a group of sea rays, which are cartilaginous fish related to sharks. Many species are endangered. Stingrays are common in coastal tropical and subtropical marine waters throughout the world.

There are about 220 known stingray species organized into 10 families and 29 genera. Stingray species are progressively becoming threatened or vulnerable to extinction, particularly as the consequence of unregulated fishing. As of 2013, 45 species have been listed as vulnerable or endangered by the IUCN. The status of some other species is poorly known, leading to their being listed as data deficient.

The mouth of the stingray is located on the ventral side of the vertebrate. Stingrays exhibit euhyostyly jaw suspension, which means that the mandibular arch is only suspended by an articulation with the hyomandibula. This type of suspensions allows for the upper jaw to have high mobility and protrude outward. The teeth are modified placoid scales that are regularly shed and replaced. In general, the teeth have a root implanted within the connective tissue and a visible portion of the tooth, is large and flat, allowing them to crush the bodies of hard shelled prey. Male stingrays display sexual dimorphism by developing cusp, or pointed ends, to some of their teeth. During mating season, some stingray species fully change their tooth morphology which then returns to during non-mating seasons.

Stingrays can breathe through their spiracles, which are openings just behind their eyes. The respiratory system of stingrays is complicated by having two separate ways to take in water to utilize the oxygen. Most of the time stingrays take in water using their mouth and then send the water through the gills for gas exchange. This is efficient, but the mouth cannot be used when hunting because the stingrays bury themselves in the ocean sediment and wait for prey to swim by. So the stingray switches to using its spiracles. With the spiracles, they can draw water free from sediment directly into their gills for gas exchange. These alternate ventilation organs are less efficient than the mouth, since spiracles are unable to pull the same volume of water. However, it is enough when the stingray is quietly waiting to ambush its prey.

The flattened bodies of stingrays allow them to effectively conceal themselves in their environments.

Stingrays do this by agitating the sand and hiding beneath it. Because their eyes are on top of their bodies and their mouths on the undersides, stingrays cannot see their prey after capture; instead, they use smell and electroreceptors (ampullae of Lorenzini) similar to those of sharks. Stingrays settle on the bottom while feeding, often leaving only their eyes and tails visible. Coral reefs are favorite feeding grounds and are usually shared with sharks during high tide.

Know More About The Monkey🐒

Monkey is a common name that may refer to groups or species of mammals, in part, the simians of infraorder Simiiformes. The term is applied descriptively to groups of primates, such as families of new world monkeys and old world monkeys.

Many monkey species are tree-dwelling (arboreal), although there are species that live primarily on the ground, such as baboons. Most species are also active during the day (diurnal). Monkeys are generally considered to be intelligent, especially the old world monkeys of Catarrhini.

The many species of monkey have varied relationships with humans. Some are kept as pets, others used as model organisms in laboratories or in space missions. They may be killed in monkey drives (when they threaten agriculture) or used as service animals for the disabled.

In some areas, some species of monkey are considered agricultural pests, and can cause extensive damage to commercial and subsistence crops. This can have important implications for the conservation of endangered species, which may be subject to persecution. In some instances farmers’ perceptions of the damage may exceed the actual damage. Monkeys that have become habituated to human presence in tourist locations may also be considered pests, attacking tourists.

A number of countries have used monkeys as part of their space exploration programmes, including the United States and France. The first monkey in space was Albert II, who flew in the US-launched V-2 rocket on June 14, 1949.

Monkey brains are eaten as a delicacy in parts of South Asia, Africa and China. Monkeys are sometimes eaten in parts of Africa, where they can be sold as “bushmeat”. In traditional Islamic dietary laws, the eating of monkeys is forbidden.

Some organizations train capuchin monkeys as service animals to assist quadriplegics and other people with severe spinal cord injuries or mobility impairments. After being socialized in a human home as infants, the monkeys undergo extensive training before being placed with a disabled person. Around the house, the monkeys assist with feeding, fetching, manipulating objects, and personal care.

Tips to escape shark attacks

Sharks rarely attack, but when they do, severe and sometimes fatal injuries commonly result. Staying out of shark habitats is the surest way to avoid getting hurt.

Scientists do not believe sharks attack humans to eat us; rather, they bite into our flesh because they are curious to find out what kind of animal we are; kind of like how dogs like to sniff new friends, only a lot more deadly. If you have accidentally wandered into shark-infested waters, however, you need to have a plan in place.

Here is a list of things you should remember when you encounter a shark:

  • Do not swim away from shark at any situation. The shark moves much faster than you.
  • Never provoke a shark or intentionally put yourself in a position in which you are likely to be attacked.
  • Do not hit the nose of shark, aim to strike the eyes. You can not only hit the eyes but also its gills. Hitting the nose will cause shark to bite.
  • Always be aware of the shark. Do not play dead as an aggressive shark will go for you.
  • Shark scales are very rough and can cut flesh quite easily. If you are free swimming (no wet-suit or gloves) do not attempt to grab a shark fin or back, (grey areas) these spots can cut you or rub your skin off, causing you to bleed and most likely triggering a sharks blood lust.
  • Never get on top of a shark. Sharks are flexible and they can turn their head and easily attack.
  • Remember to breathe as you fight.
  • You need adequate oxygen to effectively defend against an attack in order to make a quick getaway and retreat to safety.
  • Stay calm. Keep calm, swimming to shore or to anything near you that you could rest on, without being in the water, and then call for help.
  • Remember not to make any sudden movements. This will attract the shark, as it will be able to sense your movement.
  • To divers, if you are getting followed by a shark, you should have a knife on you or a spike. If the shark is waiting for a time to strike, however, try to wait it out

Before entering the water take this precautions:

Try to wear dark clothes if you are going under water.

Do not wear bright jewelry or watches. It attracts sharks. Instead, choose dark, plain colors.

Do not go swimming at dawn, dusk or at night because these are the times when sharks feed.
Do not be too scared of sharks.

If there was a shark attack a week ago or a day ago, do not go into the water, until the lifeguard tells you that it is okay to do so.

know about The Yellow Tailed Black Cockatoo

The yellow-tailed black cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus funereus) is a large cockatoo native to the south-east of Australia.

The yellow-tailed black cockatoo is found in forested regions from south and central eastern Queensland to southeastern South Australia including a very small population persisting in the Eyre Peninsula.

Measuring 55–65 cm (22–26 in) in length , It has a short crest on the top of its head. Its plumage is mostly brownish black and it has prominent yellow cheek patches and a yellow tail band. The body feathers are edged with yellow giving a scalloped appearance. The adult male has a black beak and pinkish-red eye-rings, and the female has a bone-coloured beak and grey eye-rings.

Male funereus birds weigh on average around 731 g (1.612 lb) and females weigh about 800 g (1.8 lb). Birds of the xanthanotus race on the mainland average heavier than the Tasmanian birds; the males on the mainland weigh on average around 630 g and females 637 g (1.404 lb), while those on Tasmania average 583 and 585 g (1.290 lb) respectively.

Yellow-tailed black cockatoos are diurnal, raucous and noisy, and are often heard before being seen. They make long journeys by flying at a considerable height while calling to each other, and they are often seen flying high overhead in pairs, or trios comprising a pair and their young, or small groups. Outside of the breeding season in autumn or winter they may coalesce into flocks of a hundred birds or more, while family interactions between pairs or trios are maintained. They are generally wary birds, although they can be less shy in urban and suburban areas. They generally keep to trees, only coming to ground level to inspect fallen pine or banksia cones or to drink. Flight is fluid and has been described as “lazy”, with deep, slow wingbeats.

The diet of the yellow-tailed black cockatoo is varied and available from a range of habitats within its distribution, which reduces their vulnerability to degradation or change in habitat. Much of the diet comprises seeds of native trees, particularly she-oaks .They are also partial to pine cones. In the Eyre Peninsula, the yellow-tailed black cockatoo has become dependent on the introduced Aleppo pine.

Megaconda: The Bull Killer 🐍

THE BULL KILLER: In 1948, a group of native Brazilians claimed to have captured a 131-foot long snake deep in the Amazon Rainforest. To date, biologists have yet to recognize a living reptile in excess of 33 or 34 feet, but some believe this giant anaconda, or “megaconda,” was in fact a real specimen. The natives called the terrifyingly enormous snake a “Matatoro,” or bull killer, after the half-swallowed bull they claimed to have found inside of it.

IS MEGACONDA OUT THERE?

The wells documented existence of the green anaconda — the world’s largest snake — and the fact that much of the 2.2 millions squares mile Amazon Rainforest remains unexplored lends credence to the theory that an even larger snake exists, although scientists have yet to find evidence to support the rumors. Native to South America, the green anaconda maintains its monumental size with a diet of wild pigs, deer, birds, turtles and even jaguars. If the megaconda does exist, it would certainly require even larger meals to survive. Would bulls, anacondas and possibly even entire villages of people be on the megaconda’s menu?

Report of giant anacondas date back as far as the discovery of South America when sightings of anacondas upwards of 50 meters (150 feet) began to circulate amongst colonists and the topic has been a subject of debate ever since among cryptozoologist and zoologists.

Anacondas can grow to sizes of 6 metres (20 ft) and beyond,and 150 kilograms (23 stone or approx, 330 lbs.) in weight. Although some Python species can grow longer, the anaconda, particularly the Green Anaconda, is the second heaviest and largest in terms of diameter of all snakes, and it is the second biggest extant snake in the world right behind the Reticulated Python. . The lengthiest reputably-measured and confirmed anacondas are about 7.5 meters (25 feet) long. Lengths of 50-60 feet have been reported for this species but such extremes lack verification and too add lack of large prey to support a super-large snake. The two only real reliable claims that can be found describe measured anacondas ranging from 26-32 feet although these remain unverified.

The first recorded sightings of giant anacondas were from the time of the discovery of South America, when early European explorers entered the dense jungles there and claimed to have seen giant snakes measuring up to 18 metres (59 ft) long. Natives also reported seeing anacondas upwards of 10.5 metres (34 ft) to 18 metres (59 ft).Anacondas above 7 metres (23 ft) in length are rare; the Wildlife Conservation Society has, since the early 20th century, offered a large cash reward (currently worth US$50,000) for live delivery of any snake of 9 metres (30 ft) or more in length, but the prize has never been claimed despite the numerous sightings of giant anacondas. In a survey of 780 wild anacondas in Venezuela, the largest captured was 5 metres (16 ft) long, far short of the length required.A specimen measured in 1944 exceeded this size when a petroleum expedition in Colombia claimed to have measured an anaconda which was 11.4 metres (37 ft) in length, but its claim has never been proven.

Scientist Vincent Roth also claimed to have shot and killed a 10.3 metres (34 ft) specimen, but like most other claims it lacks sound evidence. Another claim of an extraordinarily large anaconda was made by adventurer Percy Fawcett. During his 1906 expedition, Fawcett wrote that he had shot an anaconda that measured some 19 metres (62 ft) from nose to tail.Once published, Fawcett’s account was widely ridiculed. Decades later, Belgian cryptozoologist Bernard Heuvelmanscame to Fawcett’s defence, arguing that Fawcett’s writing was generally honest and reliable.

The Huntsman Spider

Huntsman spiders, members of the familySparassidae (formerly Heteropodidae), are known by this name because of their speed and mode of hunting.

They also are called giant crab spiders because of their size and appearance. Larger species sometimes are referred to as wood spiders, because of their preference for woody places (forests, mine shafts, woodpiles, wooden shacks).

In southern Africa the genus Palystes are known as rain spiders or lizard-eating spiders. Commonly they are confused with baboon spiders from the Mygalomorphae infraorder, which are not closely related.

More than a thousand Sparassidae species occur in most warm temperate to tropical regions of the world, including much of Australasia, Africa, Asia, the Mediterranean Basin, and the Americas.
Several species of huntsman spider can use an unusual form of locomotion. The wheel spider (Carparachne aureoflava) from the Namib uses a cartwheeling motion, while Cebrennus rechenbergi uses a handspring motion.

Size of a Huntsman Spider

On average, a huntsman spider’s leg span can reach up to 6 inches (15 cm), while their bodies measure about .7 inches (1.8 cm) long.
Like most spiders, apart from the Uloboridae and some Liphistiidae and Holarchaeidae, Sparassidae use venom to immobilize prey. They have been known to inflict serious defensive bites.

There have been reports of members of various genera such as Palystes, Neosparassus (formerly called Olios) and several others, inflicting severe bites. The effects vary, including local swelling and pain, nausea, headache, vomiting, irregular pulse rate, and heart palpitations, indicating some systemic neurological toxin effects, especially when the bites were severe or repeated.

Know more about–Rhinocerus.

Lignosus rhinocerus, commonly known as tiger milk mushroom, belongs to family Polyporaceae in the division Basidiomycota. Tiger milk mushroom is regarded as a medicinal mushroom with the ability to cure numerous ailments.In Malaysia, the tiger milk mushroom is more often known as “Cendawan Susu Rimau” and is hailed as Malaysia’s national treasure. It has been used traditionally as a health tonic. According to folklore, the name is based on a story in which the relatively uncommon fungus grows on the spot where a tigress drips her milk while feeding her cubs.

History

The tiger milk mushroom was first reported in 1664 when a European government agent was given this product upon sailing to the South East Asian Region. According to The Diary of John Evelyn (Publication dated 22 June 1664), this mushroom was named ‘Lac tygridis’, meaning “tiger’s milk”. In his publication, Evelyn also recorded that this fungus was used by the local people to treat diseases for which European doctors found no cure. In 1890, Sir Henry Nicholas Ridley, the father of Malaya’s rubber industry, recorded that this fungus was an important medicinal mushroom used by local communities.[7] He even attempted to cultivate it but failed. In the same year, this fungus was scientifically documented by Mordecai Cubitt Cookewho named it as Fomes rhinocerotisbased on a specimen found in Penang.[8] Today, it is known by the scientific name Lignosus rhinocerus.

Botanical Description

Lignosus rhinocerus has a centrally stipulate pileus–that is, a mushroom cap growing at the end of a stipe (stem) arising from a district buried tuber or sclerotium.[9] Unlike most other type of mushrooms, this fungus has unique growth habit in that their growth is solitary, and can find only one fruit bodyat time. This species classified as precious and rare because of its uniqueness of the growth habit where distance between one fruit body to another is not less than 5 km.

Tiger milk mushroom believed to emerge from the very spot where the milk of a prowling tiger has dropped on the ground. The underground fungus has tuber/sclerotia where it will remain there for month, years and decades. The presence of this sclerotium can only be noticeable when the mushroom sprouts out. Medicinal properties of tiger milk mushroom only found in underground tuber or sclerotium, but unfortunately formation of cap and stem would have depleted most of its essence.

Know More About- Hippopotamus

The common hippopotamus, or hippo, is a large, mostly herbivorous, semiaquatic mammal and ungulate native to sub-Saharan Africa. It is one of only two extant species in the family Hippopotamidae, the other being the pygmy hippopotamus. The name comes from the ancient Greek for “river horse”.

Here are 12 fascinating facts about the hippopotamus.

  • Despite residing in the water for a large portion of their lives, hippos can’t swim or float! They walk or stand on surfaces, like sandbanks, below the water. Hippopotamus go about their day in the water to protect their skin from the sun.
  • They secrete an oily red substance that acts as a moisturizer, sunblock, and protects them from germs. Don’t let it fool you – some may suspect them to be sweating blood.
  • They can put their breathing on auto mode! Although they can hold their breath up to seven minutes, most adult hippos resurface every three to five minutes for oxygen. Even sleeping hippo surface without waking.
  • Hippos are able to close their nostrils and ears to prevent water from entering.
  • An open mouth can be misconstrued as a yawn, while it’s much more serious than that. This means they are marking their territory and warning you off. You can hear ‘honking’ and ‘grunting’ as well.
  • A hippo’s life span is up to 40 years.
  • The hippo’s closest relatives are whales and porpoises!
  • Due to their big size, the hippopotamus is the third largest land mammal after the elephant and white rhinoceros.
  • Hippos come out of the water at night for four to five hours to graze and can cover up to 10km in this time. They mainly feed on grass and they graze using their muscular lips!
  • The hippopotamus is one of the most dangerous animals in Africa, as it is highly territorial and aggressive. So you wouldn’t want to get between it and the water! They using their canine (sharp) teeth for fighting.
  • These majestic mammals were once found throughout all sub-saharan Africa. However, populations have declined due to habitat loss and hunting. They are predominantly confined to protected areas in East African countries.
  • Hippos live in groups (herds) of around ten to 20 individuals or even more, led by one dominant male.

Is the hippopotamus dangerous?

While hippopotamuses rest near each other in the water, grazing is a solitary activity and hippos are not territorial on land. The hippopotamus is among the most dangerous animals in the world as it is highly aggressive and unpredictable.

What does a hippopotamus eat?

Diet. Hippos graze on land; they do not eat while in the water and aren’t known to graze on aquatic plants. They prefer short, creeping grass and small green shoots and reeds.

Hippopotamus teeth

Hippo Teeth Facts. The Hippos front Teeth (Incisors) can reach and incredible 1.2 feet in length. That’s not all the Canine Teeth can grow to a whopping 1.5 feet in length. … Hipposalso have the largest teeth of all land animals.

Hippo populations are threatened by hunting.

Hundreds of hippos are shot each year to minimize human-wildlife conflict, despite the fact that ditches or low fences easily deter them. It is more likely that the popularity of their meat is the reason for this strategy. Their fat and ivory tusks are also valuable to humans. At the beginning of the 21st century, the population of the common hippo declined more than 95 percent in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

In 2002, about 5.5 tons of hippo teeth were exported from Uganda, which equates to an estimated 2,000 individual animals. Hippos have been excluded from many of the strengthened ivory bans now spreading across the world making this vulnerable species at an increased risk from ivory poachers.

While the pygmy hippo is not generally a primary target for subsistence hunting, they are reported to be hunted opportunistically by bushmeat hunters.

20 Interesting Facts About Dogs 🐕

The dog was the first species to be domesticated and has been selectively bred over millennia for various behaviors, sensory capabilities, and physical attributes.

Dogs are man’s best friend, dogs are the oldest pet man have ever used, Dogs are the most loved pet of all.

Here are the 10 most interesting facts about dogs

  1. Labradors are the most popular dog breed in the United States.
  2. A puppy is born blind, deaf and toothless.
  3. Dogs are as smart as 2-year-old children.
  4. Household plants like begonia, Poinsettia and aloe vera are poisonous to dogs (and other mammals)
  5. Dogs can read our emotions.
  6. Dogs don’t feel guilt.
  7. A dog’s sense of smell is 10,000 to 100,000 stronger than ours
  8. Smaller breeds mature faster than larger breeds.
  9. Dogs are also susceptible to parasites such as fleas, ticks, mites, hookworms, tapeworms, roundworms, and heartworms (roundworm species that lives in the heart of dogs).
  10. It is illegal to own a dog as a pet in Iran
  11. Different tail wags mean different things.
  12. Dogs are man’s best friend but there are still millions of dogs homeless.
  13. Dogs can see some colors.
  14. Dogs dream like humans.
  15. Dogs can help people with health problems.
  16. Dogs know the size of another dog by the sound of their growling.
  17. Dogs sweat through their paws.
  18. A number of common human foods and household ingestibles are toxic to dogs, including chocolate solids (theobromine poisoning), onion and garlic etc.
  19. The breed with the shortest lifespan is the Dogue de Bordeaux, with a median longevity of about 5.2 years.
  20. Dogs have been described as carnivores or omnivores.

Know More About- Kangaroo Rats.

Kangaroo rats, small rodents of genus Dipodomys, are native to western North America. The common name derives from their bipedal form. They hop in a manner similar to the much larger kangaroo, but developed this mode of locomotion independently, like several other clades of rodents.

Kangaroo rats are four-toed heteromyid rodents with big hind legs, small front legs and relatively large heads. Adults typically weigh between 70 and 170 g.The tails of kangaroo rats are longer than both their bodies and their heads. Another notable feature of kangaroo rats are their fur-lined cheek pouches, which are used for storing food. The coloration of kangaroo rats varies from cinnamon buff to dark gray, depending on the species.There is also some variation in length with one of the largest species, the banner-tailed kangaroo rat being six inches in body length and a tail length of eight inches.Sexual dimorphism exists in all species, with males being larger than females.

Kangaroo rats move bipedally. Kangaroo rats often leap a distance of 6 feet,and reportedly up to 9 feet (2.75 m) at speeds up to almost 10 feet/sec, or 10 kph (6 mph).They can quickly change direction between jumps. The rapid locomotion of the banner-tailed kangaroo rat may minimize energy cost and predation risk. Its use of a “move-freeze” mode may also make it less conspicuous to nocturnal predators.

Kangaroo rats inhabit overlapping home ranges. These home ranges tend to be small with most activities within 200–300 ft and rarely 600 ft.Home range size can vary within species with Merriam’s kangaroo rats having larger home ranges than banner-tailed kangaroo rats. Recently weaned kangaroo rats move into new areas not occupied by adults. Within its home range, a kangaroo rat has a defended territory consisting of its burrowing system.

Mating and reproduction

Kangaroo rats have a promiscuousmating system. Their reproductive output is highest in summer following high rainfalls.During droughts and food shortages, only a few females will breed. It appears that kangaroo rats can assess their local conditions and adjust their reproductive efforts accordingly.Merriam’s kangaroo rats breed between February and May and produce two or three litters per year.Before mating, the male and female will perform nasal-anal circling until the female stops and allows the male to mount her. A Merriam’s kangaroo rat female will allow multiple males to mount her in a short time, perhaps to ensure greater chances of producing offspring. Mating in banner-tailed kangaroo rats involves more chasing and foot drumming in the male before the female allows him to mate.Banner-tailed kangaroo rats mate on mounds and the more successful males chase away rival males.The gestation period of kangaroo rats lasts 22–27 days.

Are kangaroo rats dangerous?

They are important to the ecosystem as a prey species, but can be a danger to humans since they often carry fleas which may carry diseases that humans are susceptible to. California has set aside protected habitat for thekangaroo rat and other programs are currently underway to further protect them.

What does kangaroo rats eat?

Kangaroo rats are primarily seed eaters. They will, however, sometimes eatvegetation at some times of the year and some insects, too. They have been seen storing the seeds of mesquite, creosote, bush, purslane, ocotillo and grama grass in their cheek pouches.

Where do kangaroo rats live?

Kangaroo rat is a species of rat that belongs to the group of desert rodents. There are 23 species of kangaroo rats that are native to North America. Kangaroo rat lives in dry, arid and semi-arid habitats such as deserts, sandy and rocky areas.

Are kangaroos related to rats?

Kangaroos are marsupial mammals, while rodents are placental mammals. It is believed that the one was not a derivative of the other, meaning that the two, marsupials and placental mammals developed independently, hence there is no cross-over within their clade. … Kangaroos are more closelyrelated to koalas and possums.

Police dog : Training and Early history

A police dog, known in some is a dog that is specifically trained to assist police and other law-enforcement personnel. Their duties include: searching for drugs and explosives, locating missing people, finding crime scene evidence, and attacking people targeted by the police. Police dogs must remember several verbal cues and hand gestures.

The most commonly used breeds are the German Shepherd, Belgian Malinois, Bloodhound, Dutch Shepherd, and Retriever breeds.

Recently, the Belgian Malinois has become the dog of choice for police and military work due to their intense drive and focus. Malinois are smaller and more agile than German Shepherds, and have fewer health issues.

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However, a well-bred working line German shepherd is just as reliable and robust as a Malinois

In many countries, the intentional injuring or killing of a police dog is a criminal offence

Early history

Dogs have been used in law enforcement since the Middle Ages. Wealth and money was then tithed in the villages for the upkeep of the parish constable’s bloodhounds that were used for hunting down outlaws. In France, dogs were used in the 14th century in St. Malo.

Bloodhounds used in Scotland were known as “Slough dogs” – the word “Sleuth”, (meaning detective) was derived from this.

The rapid urbanization of London in the 19th century increased public concern regarding growing lawlessness – a problem that was far too great to be dealt with by the existing law enforcement of the time.

As a result, private associations were formed to help combat crime. Night watchmen were employed to guard premises, and were provided with firearms and dogs to protect themselves from criminals.

Modern era

Bloodhounds used by Sir Charles Warren to track down the serial killer Jack The Ripper in the 1880s.

German shepherd in use by Schutzpolizei officer and SA auxiliary during the German federal election, March 1933, shortly after the Nazi seizure of power
One of the first attempts to use dogs in policing was in 1889 by the Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police of London, Sir Charles Warren.

Warren’s repeated failures at identifying and apprehending the serial killer Jack the Ripper had earned him much vilification from the press, including being denounced for not using bloodhounds to track the killer. a police search to find them.
t was in Continental Europe that dogs were first used on a large scale. Police in Paris began using dogs against roaming criminal gangs at night, but it was the police department in Ghent, Belgium that introduced the first organized police dog service program in 1899.

These methods soon spread to Austria-Hungary and Germany; in the latter the first scientific developments in the field took place with experiments in dog breeding and training. The German police selected the German Shepherd Dog as the ideal breed for police work and opened up the first dog training school in 1920 in Greenheide.

Training

Training of police dogs is a very lengthy process since it begins with the training of the canine handler. The canine handlers go through a long process of training to ensure that they will train the dog to the best of its ability.

First, the canine handler has to complete the requisite police academy training and one to two years of patrol experience before becoming eligible to transfer to a specialty canine unit. This is because the experience as an officer allows prospective canine officers to gain valuable experience in law enforcement.

However, having dog knowledge and / or training outside of the police academy is considered to be an asset, this could be dog obedience, crowd control, communicating effectively with animals and being approachable and personable since having a dog will draw attention from surrounding citizens.

For a dog to be considered for a police department, it must first pass a basic obedience training course. They must be able to obey the commands of their handler without hesitation. This allows the officer to have complete control over how much force the dog should use against a suspect.

Dogs trained in Europe are usually given commands in the country’s native language. Dogs are initially trained with this language for basic behavior, so, it is easier for the officer to learn new words/commands, rather than retraining the dog to new commands.

This is contrary to the popular belief that police dogs are trained in a different language so that a suspect cannot command the dog against the officer.

Know More About: The wolf 🐺

The wolf (Canis lupus),also known as the grey/gray wolf or timber wolf, is a canine native to the wilderness and remote areas of Eurasia and North America.

It is the largest extant member of its family, with males averaging 43–45 kg (95–99 lb) and females 36–38.5 kg (79–85 lb).It is distinguished from other Canis species by its larger size and less pointed features, particularly on the ears and muzzle.

Its winter fur is long and bushy and predominantly a mottled gray in color, although nearly pure white, red and brown to black also occur. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed., 2005), a standard reference work in zoology, recognises 38 subspecies of C. lupus

It is the only species of Canis to have a range encompassing both Eurasia and North America, and originated in Eurasia during the Pleistocene, colonizing North America on at least three separate occasions during the Rancholabrean.

It is a social animal, travelling in nuclear families consisting of a mated pair, accompanied by the pair’s adult offspring. The gray wolf is typically an apex predator throughout its range, with only humans and tigers posing a serious threat to it. It feeds primarily on large ungulates, though it also eats smaller animals, livestock, carrion, and garbage.

A seven-year-old wolf is considered to be relatively old, and the maximum lifespespan is about 16 years. The gray wolf is the second most specialized member of the genus Canis, after the Ethiopian wolf, as demonstrated by its morphological adaptations to hunting large prey, its more gregarious nature,and its highly advanced expressive behavior. It is nonetheless closely related enough to smaller Canis species, such as the coyote,and golden jackal,to produce fertile hybrids.

The global gray wolf population is estimated to be 300,000. The gray wolf is one of the world’s best-known and most-researched animals, with probably more books written about it than any other wildlife species. It has a long history of association with humans, having been despised and hunted in most pastoral communities because of its attacks on livestock, while conversely being respected in some agrarian and hunter-gatherer societies.

Although the fear of wolves is pervasive in many human societies, the majority of recorded attacks on people have been attributed to animals suffering from rabies. Non-rabid wolves have attacked and killed people, mainly children, but this is rare, as wolves are relatively few, live away from people, and have developed a fear of humans from hunters and shepherds.

Know More About: The Falcons

Falcons are birds of prey in the genus Falco, which includes about 40 species. Falcons are widely distributed on all continents of the world except Antarctica, though closely related raptors did occur there in the Eocene.

Adult falcons have thin, tapered wings, which enable them to fly at high speed and change direction rapidly. Fledgling falcons, in their first year of flying, have longer flight feathers, which make their configuration more like that of a general-purpose bird such as a broad-wing. This makes flying easier while learning the exceptional skills required to be effective hunters as adults. There are many different types of falcon.

The falcons are the largest genus in the Falconinae subfamily of Falconidae, which itself also includes another subfamily comprising caracaras and a few other species. All these birds kill with their beaks, using a “tooth” on the side of their beaks—unlike the hawks, eagles, and other birds of prey in the Accipitridae, which use their feet.

The largest falcon is the gyrfalcon at up to 65 cm in length. The smallest falcons are the kestrels, of which the Seychelles kestrel measures just 25 cm. As with hawks and owls, falcons exhibit sexual dimorphism, with the females typically larger than the males, thus allowing a wider range of prey species.
Some small falcons with long, narrow wings are called “hobbies” and some which hover while hunting are called “kestrels“.

Facts about Falcons

  • Peregrine falcons have been clocked at reaching speeds of 200 miles per hour(320km/h) while diving for prey, making them the fastest recorded animal ever.
  • Falcons have exceptional powers of vision; the visual acuity of one species has been measured at 2.6 times that of a normal human.
  • Humans have used falcons for hunting for thousands of years.

Google Calendar Stopped Working

Google Calendar stopped working for many users at approximately 10:22 a.m. EST on Tuesday, June 18.The G Suite Status Dashboard marked a service disruption for Google Calendar at that time but doesn’t specify the cause of the issue, and whether any Google Calendar users can access the service.Visitors who encountered Google Calendar error received a message saying “Not Found, Error 404.” Hundreds of social media users took to Twitter to report the issue as the downtime continued. Google’s Gmail platform also encountered a service disruption a day prior on June 17. Users reported problems accessing Gmail and also said that some spam messages were not being properly filtered from their inboxes.
The Google Calendar outage arrived just hours after G Suite tweeted a message promoting the popular service.Google confirmed the outage when Business Insider reached out for comment, and told social media users it’s working on a fix.

Know More About: Dragons 🐉

A dragon is a large, serpent-like legendary creature that appears in the folklore of many cultures around the world. Beliefs about dragons vary drastically by region, but dragons in western cultures since the High Middle Ages have often been depicted as winged, horned, four-legged, and capable of breathing fire. Dragons in eastern cultures are usually depicted as wingless, four-legged, serpentine creatures with above-average intelligence.

The earliest attested dragons resemble giant snakes.

Dragon-like creatures are first described in the mythologies of the ancient Near East and appear in ancient Mesopotamian art and literature. Stories about storm-gods slaying giant serpents occur throughout nearly all Indo-European and Near Eastern mythologies.

Famous prototypical dragons include the mušḫuššu of ancient Mesopotamia; Apep in Egyptian mythology; Vṛtra in the Rigveda; the Leviathan in the Hebrew Bible; Python, Ladon, Wyvern, and the Lernaean Hydra in Greek mythology; Jörmungandr, Níðhöggr, and Fafnir in Norse mythology; and the dragon from Beowulf.

The popular western image of a dragon as winged, four-legged, and capable of breathing fire is an invention of the High Middle Ages based on a conflation of earlier dragons from different traditions.

In western cultures, dragons are portrayed as monsters to be tamed or overcome, usually by saints or culture heroes, as in the popular legend of Saint George and the Dragon. They are often said to have ravenous appetites and to live in caves, where they hoard treasure. These dragons appear frequently in western fantasy literature, including The Hobbit.

The word “dragon” has also come to be applied to the Chinese lung (龍, Pinyin long), which are associated with good fortune and are thought to have power over rain.

Dragons and their associations with rain are the source of the Chinese customs of dragon dancing and dragon boat racing. Many East Asian deities and demigods have dragons as their personal mounts or companions.

Dragons were also identified with the Emperor of China, who, during later Chinese imperial history, was the only one permitted to have dragons on his house, clothing, or personal articles.

Dolphin

Dolphin is a common name of aquatic mammals within the infraorder Cetacea.

The term dolphin usually refers to the extant families Delphinidae (the oceanic dolphins), Platanistidae (the Indian river dolphins), Iniidae (the new world river dolphins), and Pontoporiidae (the brackish dolphins), and the extinct Lipotidae (baiji or Chinese river dolphin). There are 40 extant species named as dolphins.

Dolphins range in size from the 1.7 m (5.6 ft) long and 50 kg (110 lb) Maui’s dolphin to the 9.5 m (31 ft) and 10 t (11 short tons) killer whale. Several species exhibit sexual dimorphism, in that the males are larger than females.

They have streamlined bodies and two limbs that are modified into flippers. Though not quite as flexible as seals, some dolphins can travel at 55.5 km/h (34.5 mph).

Dolphins use their conical shaped teeth to capture fast moving prey. They have well-developed hearing which is adapted for both air and water and is so well developed that some can survive even if they are blind. Some species are well adapted for diving to great depths. They have a layer of fat, or blubber, under the skin to keep warm in the cold water.

Although dolphins are widespread, most species prefer the warmer waters of the tropic zones, but some, like the right whale dolphin, prefer colder climates. Dolphins feed largely on fish and squid, but a few, like the killer whale, feed on large mammals, like seals. Male dolphins typically mate with multiple females every year, but females only mate every two to three years.

Calves are typically born in the spring and summer months and females bear all the responsibility for raising them. Mothers of some species fast and nurse their young for a relatively long period of time. Dolphins produce a variety of vocalizations, usually in the form of clicks and whistles.

Dolphins are sometimes hunted in places such as Japan, in an activity known as dolphin drive hunting. Besides drive hunting, they also face threats from bycatch, habitat loss, and marine pollution. Dolphins have been depicted in various cultures worldwide.

Dolphins occasionally feature in literature and film, as in the film series free willy. Dolphins are sometimes kept in captivity and trained to perform tricks. The most common dolphin species in captivity is the bottlenose dolphin , while there are around captive killer whales.

History of Dinosaur

Dinosaurs are a diverse group of reptiles of the clade Dinosauria. They first appeared during the Triassic period, between 243 and 233.23 million years ago, although the exact origin and timing of the evolution of dinosaurs is the subject of active research.

They became the dominant terrestrial vertebrates after the Triassic–Jurassic extinction event 201 million years ago; their dominance continued through the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods.Reverse genetic engineering and the fossil record both demonstrate that birds are modern feathered dinosaurs,having evolved from earlier theropods during the late Jurassic Period.As such, birds were the only dinosaur lineage to survive the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event 66 million years ago.Dinosaurs can therefore be divided into avian dinosaurs, or birds; and non-avian dinosaurs, which are all dinosaurs other than birds. This article deals primarily with non-avian dinosaurs.

Dinosaurs are a varied group of animals from taxonomic, morphological and ecological standpoints. Birds, at over 10,000 living species,are the most diverse group of vertebrates besides perciform fish .Using fossil evidence, paleontologists have identified over 500 distinct genera and more than 1,000 different species of non-avian dinosaurs.Dinosaurs are represented on every continent by both extant species (birds) and fossil remainsThrough the first half of the 20th century, before birds were recognized to be dinosaurs, most of the scientific community believed dinosaurs to have been sluggish and cold-blooded. Most research conducted since the 1970s, however, has indicated that all dinosaurs were active animals with elevated metabolisms and numerous adaptations for social interaction.Some were herbivorous, others carnivorous. Evidence suggests that egg-laying and nest-building are additional traits shared by all dinosaurs, avian and non-avian alike.While dinosaurs were ancestrally bipedal, many extinct groups included quadrupedal species, and some were able to shift between these stances. Elaborate display structures such as horns or crests are common to all dinosaur groups, and some extinct groups developed skeletal modifications such as bony armor and spines.While the dinosaurs’ modern-day surviving avian lineage (birds) are generally small due to the constraints of flight, many prehistoric dinosaurs (non-avian and avian) were large-bodied—the largest sauropod dinosaurs are estimated to have reached lengths of 39.7 meters (130 feet)and heights of 18 meters (59 feet)and were the largest land animals of all time.Still, the idea that non-avian dinosaurs were uniformly gigantic is a misconception based in part on preservation bias, as large, sturdy bones are more likely to last until they are fossilized.Many dinosaurs were quite small: Xixianykus, for example, was only about 50 cm (20 in) long.Since the first dinosaur fossils were recognized in the early 19th century, mounted fossil dinosaur skeletons have been major attractions at museums around the world, and dinosaurs have become an enduring part of world culture. The large sizes of some dinosaur groups, as well as their seemingly monstrous and fantastic nature, have ensured dinosaurs’ regular appearance in best-selling books and films, such as Jurassic Park.Persistent public enthusiasm for the animals has resulted in significant funding for dinosaur science, and new discoveries are regularly covered by the media.

Know more about: The King cobra

The king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah), also known as the hamadryad, is a venomous snake species in the family Elapidae, endemic to forests from India through Southeast Asia.

It is threatened by habitat destruction and has been listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List since 2010.It is the world’s longest venomous snake.

Adult king cobras are 3.18 to 4 m (10.4 to 13.1 ft) long.

The longest known individual measured 5.85 m (19.2 ft).

Despite the word “cobra” in its common name, this species does not belong to the genus Naja, the true cobras, but is the sole member of its own genus Ophiophagus.

It preys chiefly on other snakes and occasionally on some other vertebrates, such as lizards and rodents.

It is a dangerous snake when agitated or provoked that has a fearsome reputation in its range, although it is typically shy and avoids confrontation with humans when possible.

The king cobra is a prominent symbol in the mythology and folk traditions of India, Sri Lanka and Myanmar. It is the national reptile of India.

The king cobra was described and drawn by the Danish naturalist Theodore Edward Cantor in 1836, who gave it the scientific name Hamadryas hannah.

Cantor had three specimens from the Sundarbans and one caught in the vicinity of Kolkata.

It was moved to its own genus Ophiophagus by Albert Günther in 1864.

A 2016 genetic analysis showed that the king cobra was an early offshoot of a lineage giving rise to the mambas, rather than the other cobras.

Ophiophagus hannah belongs to the monotypic genus Ophiophagus in the family Elapidae, while most other cobras are members of the genus Naja.

They can be distinguished from other cobras by size and hood.

King cobras are generally larger than other cobras, and the stripe on the neck is a chevron instead of a double or single eye shape that may be seen in most of the other Asian cobras. Moreover, the hood of the king cobra is narrower and longer.

A key to identification, clearly visible on the head, is the presence of a pair of large scales known as occipitals, located at the back of the top of the head.

These are behind the usual “nine-plate” arrangement typical of colubrids and elapids, and are unique to the king cobra.

Description

A king cobra showing its chevron pattern on the neck

Scalation of the king cobra
The skin of king cobra is dark olive or brown with black bands and white or yellow crossband

The head is black with two crossbars near the snout and two behind the eyes. Adult king cobras are 3.18 to 4 m (10.4 to 13.1 ft) long.

The longest known individual measured 5.85 m (19.2 ft).[3] Its belly is cream or pale yellow. It has 17 to 19 rows of smooth scales. Ventral scales are uniformly oval shaped.

Dorsal scales are placed in an oblique arrangement.Males have 235 to 250 ventral scales, while females have 239 to 265.

The subcaudal scales are single or paired in each row, numbering 83 to 96 in males and 77 to 98 in females.

Juveniles are shiny black with narrow yellow bands (can be mistaken for a banded krait, but readily identified with its expandable hood).

The head of a mature snake can be quite massive and bulky in appearance, though like all snakes, it can expand its jaws to swallow large prey items.

It has proteroglyph dentition, meaning it has two short, fixed fangs in the front of the mouth, which channel venom into the prey like hypodermic needles. The average lifespan of a wild king cobra is about 20 years.

King cobras are sexually dimorphic in size, with males reaching larger sizes than females, which is an unusual trait among snakes whose females are usually larger than males.

The length and mass of the snakes highly depend on their localities and some other factors.

The king cobra typically weighs about 6 kg (13 lb).

The longest known specimen was a captive one at the London Zoo, and grew to around 18.5 to 18.8 ft (5.6 to 5.7 m) before being euthanised upon the outbreak of World War II.

The heaviest wild specimen was caught at Royal Island Club in Singapore in 1951, which weighed 12 kg (26 lb) and measured 4.8 m (16 ft), though an even heavier captive specimen was kept at New York Zoological Park and was measured as 12.7 kg (28 lb) at 4.4 m (14.4 ft) long in 1972.

Some viper species, such as the eastern diamondback rattlesnake and the Gaboon viper, often much shorter in length but bulkier in build, rival the king cobra in average weight.

Distribution and habitat

The king cobra is distributed across the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, and the southern areas of East Asia (where it is not common), in Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Nepal, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam and southern China.

In India it has been recorded from Goa; Western Ghats of Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu; east coastline of Andhra Pradesh and Odisha; Sundarban mangroves; Himalayan foothills from Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, northern parts of West Bengal to most of the north-east region and Andaman Islands. The type locality is the Sundarbans.

It lives in dense highland forests, preferring areas dotted with lakes and streams. King cobra populations have dropped in some areas of its range because of the destruction of forests and ongoing collection for the international pet trade.

Behavior

Captive king cobras with their hoods extended.

A king cobra, like other snakes, receives chemical information via its forked tongue, which picks up scent particles and transfers them to a special sensory receptor (Jacobson’s organ) located in the roof of its mouth.

This is akin to the human sense of smell. When the scent of a meal is detected, the snake flicks its tongue to gauge the prey’s location (the twin forks of the tongue acting in stereo); it also uses its keen eyesight; king cobras are able to detect moving prey almost 100 m (330 ft) away.

Its intelligence and sensitivity to earth-borne vibration are also used to track its prey.

Following envenomation, the king cobra swallows its struggling prey. King cobras, like all snakes, have flexible jaws. The jaw bones are connected by pliable ligaments, enabling the lower jaw bones to move independently.

This allows the king cobra to swallow its prey whole, and swallow prey much larger than its head.

King cobras are able to hunt throughout the day, but are rarely seen at night, leading most herpetologists to classify them as a diurnal species.

Feeding ecology

A king cobra in its defensive posture (mounted specimen at the Royal Ontario Museum)
The king cobra’s generic name, Ophiophagus is a Greek-derived word that means “snake-eater”.

Its diet consists primarily of other snakes, including rat snakes, pythons, and even other venomous snakes such as various members of the true cobras and the krait.

Its most common prey is the rat snake, and it also hunts Malabar pit viper and hump-nosed pit viper by following the snakes’ odour trails.

When food is scarce, it also feeds on other small vertebrates, such as lizards, birds, and rodents. In some cases, the cobra constricts its prey, such as birds and larger rodents, using its muscular body, though this is uncommon.

After a large meal, the snake lives for many months without another one because of its slow metabolic rate.

Defense

When annoyed, this species quickly attempts to escape and avoid confrontation. However, if continuously provoked, the king cobra can be highly aggressive.

When alarmed, it rears up the anterior portion (usually one-third) of its body when extending the neck, showing the fangs and hissing loudly.

It can be easily irritated by closely approaching objects or sudden movements.

When raising its body, the king cobra can still move forward to strike with a long distanceand people may misjudge the safe zone.

This snake can deliver multiple bites in a single attack,and adults are known to bite and hold on. Many victims bitten by king cobras are actually snake charmers.

Some scientists believe that the temperament of this species has been grossly exaggerated.

In most of the local encounters with live, wild king cobras, the snakes appear to be of rather placid disposition, and they usually end up being killed or subdued with hardly any hysterics.

These support the view that wild king cobras generally have a mild temperament, and despite their frequent occurrence in disturbed and built-up areas, are adept at avoiding humans.

Naturalist Michael Wilmer Forbes Tweedie felt that “this notion is based on the general tendency to dramatise all attributes of snakes with little regard for the truth about them.

A moment’s reflection shows that this must be so, for the species is not uncommon, even in populated areas, and consciously or unconsciously, people must encounter king cobras quite frequently.

If the snake were really habitually aggressive, records of its bite would be frequent; as it is they are extremely rare.”

If a king cobra encounters a natural predator, such as the mongoose, which has resistance to the neurotoxins, the snake generally tries to flee. If unable to do so, it forms the distinctive cobra hood and emits a hiss, sometimes with feigned closed-mouth strikes.

These efforts usually prove to be very effective, especially since it is much more dangerous than other mongoose prey, as well as being much too large for the small mammal to kill with ease.

A good defense for anyone who accidentally encounters this snake is to slowly remove a shirt or hat and toss it to the ground while backing away.

Growling hiss

The hiss of the king cobra is a much lower pitch than many other snakes and many people thus liken its call to a “growl” rather than a hiss.

While the hisses of most snakes are of a broad-frequency span ranging from roughly 3,000 to 13,000 Hz with a dominant frequency near 7,500 Hz, king cobra growls consist solely of frequencies below 2,500 Hz, with a dominant frequency near 600 Hz, a much lower-sounding frequency closer to that of a human voice.

Comparative anatomical morphometric analysis has led to a discovery of tracheal diverticula that function as low-frequency resonating chambers in king cobra and its prey, the rat snake, both of which can make similar growls.

Reproduction

A captive juvenile king cobra in its defensive posture
The female is gravid for 50 to 59 days, after which she builds a nest, lays 12 to 51 eggs and guards it during the incubation period of about 51 to 79 days.

The hatchlings are 31 to 73 cm (12 to 29 in) long and weigh 18.4 to 40 g (0.65 to 1.41 oz).

The king cobra is unusual among snakes in that the female is a very dedicated parent. For the nest, the female scrapes up leaves and other debris into a mound, and stays in the nest until the young hatch. She guards the mound tenaciously, rearing up into a threat display if any large animal gets too close.

Inside the mound, the eggs are incubated at a steady 28 °C (82 °F). When the eggs start to hatch, the female leaves the nest. The baby king cobra’s venom is as potent as that of the adults.

They may be brightly marked, but these colours often fade as they mature. They are alert and nervous, being highly aggressive if disturbed.

Venom

The venom of the king cobra consists primarily of neurotoxins, known as the haditoxin,with several other compounds.

Its murine toxicity varies from intravenous 1.31 mg/kg[33] and intraperitoneal 1.644 mg/kg[33] to subcutaneous 1.7—1.93 mg/kg.

Accordingly, large quantities of antivenom may be needed to reverse the progression of symptoms developed if bitten by a king cobra.

The toxins affect the victim’s central nervous system, resulting in severe pain, blurred vision, vertigo, drowsiness, and eventually paralysis.

If the envenomation is serious, it progresses to cardiovascular collapse, and the victim falls into a coma. Death soon follows due to respiratory failure.

Bites from a king cobra may result in a rapid fatality which can be as early as 30 minutes after the envenomation. The king cobra’s envenomation was even recorded to be capable of killing elephants within hours.

Two types of antivenom are made specifically to treat king cobra envenomations.

The Red Cross in Thailand manufactures one, and the Central Research Institute in India manufactures the other; however, both are made in small quantities and, while available to order, are not widely stocked.

Ohanin, a protein component of the venom, causes hypolocomotion and hyperalgesia in mammals.

Other components have cardiotoxic,cytotoxic and neurotoxic effects.

In Thailand, a concoction of alcohol and the ground root of turmeric is ingested, which has been clinically shown to create a strong resilience against the venom of the king cobra, and other snakes with neurotoxic venom. Proper and immediate treatments are critical to avoid death.

Successful precedents include a client who recovered and was discharged in 10 days after being treated by accurate antivenom and inpatient care.

Know more about: The Ants

Ants are eusocial insects of the family Formicidae and, along with the related wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera. Ants evolved from wasp-like ancestors in the Cretaceous period, about 140 million years ago, and diversified after the rise of flowering plants. More than 12,500 of an estimated total of 22,000 species have been classified. They are easily identified by their elbowed antennae and the distinctive node-like structure that forms their slender waists.

Ants form colonies that range in size from a few dozen predatory individuals living in small natural cavities to highly organised colonies that may occupy large territories and consist of millions of individuals. Larger colonies consist of various castes of sterile, wingless females, most of which are workers (ergates), as well as soldiers (dinergates) and other specialised groups. Nearly all ant colonies also have some fertile males called “drones” (aner) and one or more fertile females called “queens” (gynes).

The colonies are described as superorganisms because the ants appear to operate as a unified entity, collectively working together to support the colony.

Ants have colonised almost every landmass on Earth. The only places lacking indigenous ants are Antarctica and a few remote or inhospitable islands. Ants thrive in most ecosystems and may form 15–25% of the terrestrial animal biomass.

Their success in so many environments has been attributed to their social organisation and their ability to modify habitats, tap resources, and defend themselves. Their long co-evolution with other species has led to mimetic, commensal, parasitic, and mutualistic relationships.

Ants are found on all continents except Antarctica, and only a few large islands, such as Greenland, Iceland, parts of Polynesia and the Hawaiian Islands lack native ant species.

Ants occupy a wide range of ecological niches and exploit many different food resources as direct or indirect herbivores, predators and scavengers. Most ant species are omnivorous generalists, but a few are specialist feeders. Their ecological dominance is demonstrated by their biomass: ants are estimated to contribute 15–20 % (on average and nearly 25% in the tropics) of terrestrial animal biomass, exceeding that of the vertebrates.

Ants range in size from 0.75 to 52 millimetres (0.030–2.0 in), the largest species being the fossil Titanomyrma giganteum, the queen of which was 6 centimetres (2.4 in) long with a wingspan of 15 centimetres (5.9 in). Ants vary in colour; most ants are red or black, but a few species are green and some tropical species have a metallic lustre. More than 12,000 species are currently known (with upper estimates of the potential existence of about 22,000).

Polymorphism

In the colonies of a few ant species, there are physical castes—workers in distinct size-classes, called minor, median, and major ergates. Often, the larger ants have disproportionately larger heads, and correspondingly stronger mandibles. These are known as macrergates while smaller workers are known as micrergates.

Although formally known as dinergates, such individuals are sometimes called “soldier” ants because their stronger mandibles make them more effective in fighting, although they still are workers and their “duties” typically do not vary greatly from the minor or median workers. In a few species, the median workers are absent, creating a sharp divide between the minors and majors.

Weaver ants, for example, have a distinct bimodal size distribution.
Some other species show continuous variation in the size of workers. The smallest and largest workers in Pheidologeton diversus show nearly a 500-fold difference in their dry-weights.

Workers cannot mate; however, because of the haplodiploid sex-determination system in ants, workers of a number of species can lay unfertilised eggs that become fully fertile, haploid males. The role of workers may change with their age and in some species, such as honeypot ants, young workers are fed until their gasters are distended, and act as living food storage vessels. These food storage workers are called repletes.

For instance, these replete workers develop in the North American honeypot ant Myrmecocystus mexicanus. Usually the largest workers in the colony develop into repletes; and, if repletes are removed from the colony, other workers become repletes, demonstrating the flexibility of this particular polymorphism. This polymorphism in morphology and behaviour of workers initially was thought to be determined by environmental factors such as nutrition and hormones that led to different developmental paths; however, genetic differences between worker castes have been noted in Acromyrmex sp. These polymorphisms are caused by relatively small genetic changes; differences in a single gene of Solenopsis invicta can decide whether the colony will have single or multiple queens.

The Australian jack jumper ant (Myrmecia pilosula) has only a single pair of chromosomes (with the males having just one chromosome as they are haploid), the lowest number known for any animal, making it an interesting subject for studies in the genetics and developmental biology of social insects.

Life Cycle

The life of an ant starts from an egg. If the egg is fertilised, the progeny will be female diploid; if not, it will be male haploid. Ants develop by complete metamorphosis with the larva stages passing through a pupal stage before emerging as an adult. The larva is largely immobile and is fed and cared for by workers. Food is given to the larvae by trophallaxis, a process in which an ant regurgitates liquid food held in its crop. This is also how adults share food, stored in the “social stomach”. Larvae, especially in the later stages, may also be provided solid food, such as trophic eggs, pieces of prey, and seeds brought by workers.

The larvae grow through a series of four or five moults and enter the pupal stage. The pupa has the appendages free and not fused to the body as in a butterfly pupa. The differentiation into queens and workers (which are both female), and different castes of workers, is influenced in some species by the nutrition the larvae obtain. Genetic influences and the control of gene expression by the developmental environment are complex and the determination of caste continues to be a subject of research.

Winged male ants, called drones, emerge from pupae along with the usually winged breeding females. Some species, such as army ants, have wingless queens. Larvae and pupae need to be kept at fairly constant temperatures to ensure proper development, and so often, are moved around among the various brood chambers within the colony.

A new ergate spends the first few days of its adult life caring for the queen and young. She then graduates to digging and other nest work, and later to defending the nest and foraging. These changes are sometimes fairly sudden, and define what are called temporal castes. An explanation for the sequence is suggested by the high casualties involved in foraging, making it an acceptable risk only for ants who are older and are likely to die soon of natural causes.

Ant colonies can be long-lived. The queens can live for up to 30 years, and workers live from 1 to 3 years. Males, however, are more transitory, being quite short-lived and surviving for only a few weeks. Ant queens are estimated to live 100 times as long as solitary insects of a similar size.

Ants are active all year long in the tropics, but, in cooler regions, they survive the winter in a state of dormancy known as hibernation. The forms of inactivity are varied and some temperate species have larvae going into the inactive state (diapause), while in others, the adults alone pass the winter in a state of reduced activity.

Know more about: The Chameleon

Chameleons or chamaeleons (family Chamaeleonidae) are a distinctive and highly specialized clade of Old World lizards with 202 species described as June 2015. These species come in a range of colors, and many species have the ability to change color.

Karma chameleon

Karma Chameleon” is a song by English band Culture Club, featured on the group’s 1983 album Colour by Numbers. The single spent three weeks at number 22

Jackson’s chameleon

Jackson’s chameleon,
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The Chameleons

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Veiled chameleon

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Panther chameleon

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Chameleon (disambiguation)

A chameleon is an Old World lizard belonging to the family Chamaeleonidae. Chameleon (or variants such as chamaeleon and cameleon) may also refer to: Chamaeleon 6 KB (578 words) – 00:43, 16 April 2019.

Common chameleon

The common chameleon or Mediterranean chameleon(Chamaeleo chamaeleon), together with the African chameleon, C. africanus, is one of only two extant species 7 KB (810 words) – 20:42, 22 May 2019.

Chameleon vision

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African chameleon

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The Tiger 🐅

The tiger (Panthera tigris) is the largest species among the Felidae and classified in the genus Panthera. It is most recognizable for its dark vertical stripes on reddish-orange fur with a lighter underside.

It is an apex predator, primarily preying on ungulates such as deer and bovids. It is territorial and generally a solitary but social predator, requiring large contiguous areas of habitat, which support its requirements for prey and rearing of its offspring.

Tiger cubs stay with their mother for about two years, before they become independent and leave their mother’s home range to establish their own.

Photo by Zocha K| Getty Images

The tiger once ranged widely from Eastern Anatolia Region in the west to the Amur River basin, and in the south from the foothills of the Himalayas to Bali in the Sunda islands.

Since the early 20th century, tiger populations have lost at least 93% of their historic range and have been extirpated in Western and Central Asia, from the islands of Java and Bali, and in large areas of Southeast and South Asia and China.

Today’s tiger range is fragmented, stretching from Siberian temperate forests to subtropical and tropical forests on the Indian subcontinent and Sumatra.

The tiger is listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List since 1986. As of 2015, the global wild tiger population was estimated to number between 3,062 and 3,948 mature individuals, down from around 100,000 at the start of the 20th century, with most remaining populations occurring in small pockets isolated from each other.

Major reasons for population decline include habitat destruction, habitat fragmentation and poaching.

This, coupled with the fact that it lives in some of the more densely populated places on Earth, has caused significant conflicts with humans.

The tiger is among the most recognisable and popular of the world’s charismatic megafauna. It featured prominently in ancient mythology and folklore and continues to be depicted in modern films and literature, appearing on many flags, coats of arms and as mascots for sporting teams. The tiger is the national animal of India, Bangladesh, Malaysia and South Korea.

Probable evolution of the tiger

The tiger’s closest living relatives were previously thought to be the Panthera species lion, leopard and jaguar.

Results of genetic analysis indicate that about 2.88 million years ago, the tiger and the snow leopard lineages diverged from the other Panthera species, and that both may be more closely related to each other than to the lion, leopard and jaguar.

P. t. palaeosinensis from the Early Pleistocene of northern China is the most primitive known tiger to date.

Fossil remains of Panthera zdanskyi were excavated in Gansu province of northwestern China.

This species lived at the beginning of the Pleistocene about two million years ago, and is considered to be a sister taxon of the modern tiger. It was about the size of a jaguar and probably had a different coat pattern.

Despite being considered more “primitive”, it was functionally and possibly also ecologically similar to the modern tiger. Northwestern China is thought to be the origin of the tiger lineage.

Tigers grew in size, possibly in response to adaptive radiations of prey species like deer and bovids, which may have occurred in Southeast Asia during the early Pleistocene.

Panthera tigris trinilensis lived about 1.2 million years ago and is known from fossils excavated near Trinil in Java.

The Wanhsien, Ngandong, Trinil and Japanese tigers became extinct in prehistoric times.

Tigers reached India and northern Asia in the late Pleistocene, reaching eastern Beringia, Japan, and Sakhalin. Some fossil skulls are morphologically distinct from lion skulls, which could indicate tiger presence in Alaska during the last glacial period, about 100,000 years ago.

Tiger fossils found in the island of Palawan were smaller than mainland tiger fossils, possibly due to insular dwarfism.

Fossil remains of tigers were also excavated in Sri Lanka, China, Japan, Sarawak dating to the late Pliocene, Pleistocene and Early Holocene.

The Bornean tiger was apparently present in Borneo between the Late Pleistocene and the Holocene, but may have gone extinct in prehistoric times.

The potential tiger range during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene was predicted applying ecological niche modelling based on more than 500 tiger locality records combined with bioclimatic data.

The resulting model shows a contiguous tiger range from southern India to Siberia at the Last Glacial Maximum, indicating an unobstructed gene flow between tiger populations in mainland Asia throughout the Late Pleistocene and Holocene.

The tiger populations on the Sunda Islands and mainland Asia were possibly separated during interglacial periods.

Results of a phylogeographic study indicate that all living tigers had a common ancestor 72,000–108,000 years ago.

The tiger’s full genome sequence was published in 2013. It was found to have similar repeat composition than other cat genomes and an appreciably conserved synteny.

Hybrids

Captive tigers were bred with lions to create hybrids called liger and tigon. They share physical and behavioural qualities of both parent species. Breeding hybrids is now discouraged due to the emphasis on conservation.

The liger is a cross between a male lion and a tigress. Ligers are typically between 10 and 12 ft (3.0 and 3.7 m) in length, and weigh between 800 and 1,000 lb (360 and 450 kg) or more.
Because the lion sire passes on a growth-promoting gene, but the corresponding growth-inhibiting gene from the female tiger is absent, ligers grow far larger than either parent species.

The less common tigon is a cross between a lioness and a male tiger. Because the male tiger does not pass on a growth-promoting gene and the lioness passes on a growth inhibiting gene, tigons are around the same size as their parents.

Some females are fertile and have occasionally given birth to litigons when mated to a male Asiatic lion.