Tag Archives: Science and Technology

Beware!! 7 Scary Things That Will Happen If The Sun Dies

The sun has a life span of about ten billion years, and we’re already heading toward five billion years in That brings up an important question: What exactly is going to happen once the Sun reaches its limit?

Ok, here are 10 things that will happen once the sun dies:

7. The Greenhouse Effect Will Become Extremely Effective

Sun
The hot sun

One of the first things that will happen once the Sun exhausts its hydrogen is that it will brighten a lot. The brighter the Sun gets, the more of its energy the Earth will receive. The gases in our atmosphere—such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide—work like a blanket and already hold in heat from our star, allowing the planet to support life. With the Sun working overtime, these gases will hold in more of its energy. The Earth will become extremely hot, causing water all over the world to evaporate and create a dense cloud in the atmosphere. This cloud will protect the Earth’s surface from the Sun’s radiation for a while. After enough time, though, the heat will become too much, and the oceans will start boiling. At this point, it will be no longer possible for life to exist on Earth. If we’re not dead by then, we would certainly die from lack of water and excessive heat.

6. The Sun Will Expand

The sun (image credit: Getty Images}

Not only will the Sun become much brighter, but it will also increase greatly in size. Once it uses up all of its fuel, it will move on to the next phase in its life cycle: the red giant phase. Even though it increases in size, the actual temperature of the red giant phase is lower, at just 2,000 to 3,000 degrees Celsius.[3] That may seem hot, but in comparison to the Sun’s usual surface temperature of roughly 5,000 to 9,000 degrees Celsius, it is definitely cooler.Although this is how the Sun’s demise will occur, it is not true for all stars. Smaller stars, known as red dwarfs, are so weak that they simply go out once they use up their fuel (though they last much longer than other stars). On the other hand, blue and white giants are so big that they’ll fuse heavier elements until they develop an iron core. After that, they go supernova.

Read also: 10 facts about black holes you don’t know

5. . . And Then It Will Shrink

The sun (image credit: Getty Images}

Over time, the Sun will continue to change. When it’s through fusing helium, it won’t be able to do the same with the carbon, and it will finally shrink to a white dwarf. This phase is much smaller than the size of the original Sun.White dwarfs have much less energy, but what they do have is longevity.

These star remnants continue shining on for billions and billions of years, until at some point, far in the future, they turn into dead black dwarfs. It is impossible to know exactly how long this process will take, because astronomers currently believe that the universe isn’t even old enough yet for any black dwarfs to have formed!

4. Life May Form In Other Places

Stars (Credit: Anastasiia Shavshyna)

Although life on Earth would be long gone by the time the Sun becomes a red giant, that doesn’t mean it won’t reappear elsewhere. Jupiter and Saturn are both large planets with many moons, which could be habitable.

Europa and Ganymede are two moons that currently contain ice. That may not sound too hospitable (Europa’s widely accepted subsurface ocean notwithstanding), but once the Sun increases in size, though, it’ll be close enough to possibly warm the ice and create an environment suitable for more familiar-looking forms of life to exist.

Read also: Know more about eclipse

3. The Outer Solar System Will Finally Feel The Heat

Black sun (Image credit: Getty Images)

As already mentioned, the Sun will become a lot larger and brighter once it starts to die. This will cause nearby planets to turn into fiery wastelands, but what about planets and dwarf planets that are freezing far away? Take Pluto, for example: Right now, the temperature of Pluto varies from –233 to –223 degrees Celsius (–387 to –369 °F). That is freezing.Once the edge of the Sun gets closer, however, it will be able to warm Pluto and the other outer bodies up. While it is unlikely that life will form because not every necessary condition exists, they will remain as warm remnants of what the solar system used to be.This will change as the Sun shrinks into a white dwarf, but at least the outer solar system will be able to have a bit of the Sun’s warmth before it dies forever.

Read also: Know more about the moon

2. Human Life Will Definitely Be Impossible On Earth

Sun on flowers (Image credit: Getty Images)

Life may occur elsewhere, but it definitely won’t be happening on Earth. Unfortunately, everything that we’ve worked toward will go to ruin once the Sun dies. The surface of Earth will be way too hot to even consider life being possible. Even if we somehow create new anti-heat technology, it is unlikely we would be able to grow anything to eat or find water to drink. Everything that is necessary for survival will cease to exist.It’s odd thinking that at some point, all of this will no longer seem to matter. The Internet will be long dead, along with every memory we have of our Earth. This is why it is simply a hope that somewhere out there, life will start again. It is highly unlikely, though, that this life will look anything like the human race. Even if they do have the same features, it will take billions of years for life-forms to evolve again to where we are today.

1. Humans Could Find Another Way To Make It

A girl (Credit: Justin Lambert)

It is hard to predict exactly what kind of technology we might have in the future, but it’s fun to imagine the possibilities. We’re already coming close to seeing automated cars and other futuristic devices. For all we know, at some point before our time is up, we may create a way to travel to faraway planets. We know of places that could be habitable, so if it came down to it, we could try some of them out. It’s even possible that our race will have already expanded beyond our horizons and into countless other solar systems by the time the Sun starts to die.In the news, NASA is already working on a mission to Mars. Many other companies have advertised trying to be the first to colonize the red planet. If such a mission were to succeed, it could be revolutionary for the future of the human race.

The goal is for humans to be sent to Mars in the 2030s, which isn’t so far off. Mars would be a small feat in comparison to going to an entirely new galaxy, of course. But as Neil Armstrong said, “That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.”We have to hope that we can avoid any other catastrophic events before we have a chance to search the universe. Most of what is out there is still unknown—our telescopes can only see so far. We do not know the entire expanse of the universe, nor do we know the extent of our own capabilities. Even though the end of the Sun may seem like the end of life as we know it, we could be wrong. For all we know, our minds could take us farther into the universe than we could possibly imagine.

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Top 10 World Greatest Scientist

Here are the top ten greatest scientist, they are known for their great inventions and discoveries which have changed the world.

10. Leonardo da Vinci(14/15 April 1452 – 2 May 1519)

Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci was an Italian polymath of the Renaissance whose areas of interest included invention, drawing, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography. He has been variously called the father of palaeontology, ichnology , and architecture, and he is widely considered one of the greatest painters of all time.Leonardo is renowned primarily as a painter. The Mona Lisa is the most famous of his works and the most parodied portrait, and The Last Supper is the most reproduced religious painting of all time. His drawing of the Vitruvian Man is also regarded as a cultural icon, being reproduced on items.

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9. Michael Faraday (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867)

Micheal Faraday was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. His main discoveries include the principles underlying electromagnetic induction , diamagnetism and electrolysis .He was one of the most influential scientists in history, it was largely due to his efforts that electricity became practical for use in technology.

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8. Thomas Edison (February 11, 1847 – October 18, 1931)

Thomas

Edison was an American inventor and businessman, who has been described as America’s greatest inventor. He developed many devices in fields such as electric power generation , mass communication , sound recording , and motion pictures. These inventions, which include the phonograph , the motion picture camera , and the long-lasting, practical electric light bulb , had a widespread impact on the modern industrialized world .He was one of the first inventors to apply the principles of organized science and teamwork to the process of invention, working with many researchers and employees. He established the first industrial research laboratory .

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7. Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895)

Louis Pasteur was a French biologist , microbiologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization . He is remembered for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and prevention of diseases, and his discoveries have saved many lives ever since. He reduced mortality from puerperal fever , and created the first vaccines for rabies and anthrax.Louis Pasteur is also popularly known as the “father of microbiology”.His discoveries saved millions of people worldwide. Even today his contributions save millions of people. Apart from his discoveries on disease prevention, he is better known for a technique of treating milk and wine known as pasteurization.

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6. Nikola Tesla (10 July 1856 – 7 January 1943))

Nikola Tesla was a Serbian-American inventor , electrical engineer , mechanical engineer , and futurist who is best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system.Tesla conducted a range of experiments with mechanical oscillators/generators, electrical discharge tubes, and early X-ray imaging. He also built a wireless-controlled boat, one of the first ever exhibited. Tesla became well known as an inventor and would demonstrate his achievements to celebrities and wealthy patrons at his lab, and was noted for his showmanship at public lectures.

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5. Aristotle (382BC-322BC)

Aristotle was a Greek philosopher during the Classical period in Ancient Greece, the founder of the Lyceum and the Peripatetic school of philosophy and Aristotelian tradition.His writings cover many subjects – including physics, biology , zoology , metaphysics , logic, ethics, aesthetics, poetry , theatre, music, rhetoric, psychology, linguistics , economics , politics and government. He Along with his teacher Plato, he has been called the “Father of Western Philosophy” along with his teacher Plato.

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4. Marie Curie (1867-1934)

Marie Curie was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity . She was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize , the first person and only woman to win the Nobel prize twice , and the only person to win the Nobel Prize in two different scientific fields. She was part of the Curie family legacy of five Nobel Prizes.She was also the first woman to become a professor at the University of Paris , and in 1995 became the first woman to be entombed on her own merits in the Panthéon in Paris.
She is known for Known for the development of radioactivity, the discovery of Polonium and Radium, She died from Aplastic anemia from exposure to radiation.

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3.Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)

Galileo Galilei was an Italian astronomer, physicist and engineer , sometimes described as a polymath.  Galileo has been called the “father of observational astronomy “, the “father of modern physics“, the “father of the scientific method “, and the “father of modern science “.Galileo studied speed and velocity , gravity and free fall , the principle of relativity , inertia , projectile motion and also worked in applied science and technology, describing the properties of pendulums and ” hydrostatic balances”, inventing the thermoscope and various military compasses , and using the telescope for scientific observations of celestial objects.

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2. Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727)

Sir Isaac Newton was an English mathematician, physicist , astronomer, theologian , and author (described in his own day as a ” natural philosopher “) who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution .He demonstrated that the motion of objects on Earth and celestial bodies,  He also formulated an empirical law of cooling , made the first theoretical calculation of the speed of sound , introduced the notion of a Newtonian fluid and much more. He is known for
Newtonian mechanics, Universal gravitation, Calculus, Newton’s laws of motion, Optics, Binomial series Principia and Newton’s method.

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1. Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955)

Einstein was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics). His work is also known for its influence on the philosophy of science. He is best known to the general public for his mass–energy equivalence formula E = mc2, which has been dubbed “the world’s most famous equation”.

Biography: Stephen William Hawking

Stephen William Hawking CH CBE FRS FRSA (8 January 1942 – 14 March 2018) was an English theoretical physicist , cosmologist , and author who was director of research at the
Centre for Theoretical Cosmology at the University of Cambridge at the time of his death.

Hawking was born on 8 January 1942 in Oxford to Frank (1905–1986) and Isobel Eileen Hawking (née Walker; 1915–2013).

He was the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge between 1979 and 2009.

His scientific works included a collaboration with Roger Penrose on gravitational singularity theorems in the framework of general relativity and the theoretical prediction that black holes emit radiation, often called Hawking radiation . Hawking was the first to set out a theory of cosmology explained by a union of the general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics . He was a vigorous supporter of the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics.

Hawking achieved commercial success with several works of popular science in which he discusses his own theories and cosmology in general. His book A Brief History of Time appeared on the British Sunday Times best-seller list for a record-breaking 237 weeks. Hawking was a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS), a lifetime member of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences , and a recipient of the
Presidential Medal of Freedom , the highest civilian award in the United States. In 2002, Hawking was ranked number 25 in the BBC’s poll of the 100 Greatest Britons .

In 1963, Hawking was diagnosed with an early-onset slow-progressing form of motor neurone disease (MND; also known as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis “ALS” or Lou Gehrig ‘s disease) that gradually paralysed him over the decades. Even after the loss of his speech, he was still able to communicate through a speech-generating device, initially through use of a hand-held switch, and eventually by using a single cheek muscle. He died on 14 March 2018 at the age of 76, after living with the disease for more than 50 years.

Personal life

Marriages

When Hawking was a graduate student at Cambridge, his relationship with Jane Wilde , a friend of his sister whom he had met shortly before his late 1963 diagnosis with motor neurone disease, continued to develop. The couple became engaged in October 1964 Hawking later said that the engagement gave him “something to live for” and the two were married on 14 July 1965.

During their first years of marriage, Jane lived in London during the week as she completed her degree, and they travelled to the United States several times for conferences and physics-related visits. The couple had difficulty finding housing that was within Hawking’s walking distance to the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics (DAMTP). Jane began a PhD programme, and a son, Robert, was born in May 1967. A daughter, Lucy , was born in November 1969. A third child, Timothy, was born in April 1979.

Hawking rarely discussed his illness and physical challenges, even – in a precedent set during their courtship – with Jane. His disabilities meant that the responsibilities of home and family rested firmly on his wife’s increasingly overwhelmed shoulders, leaving him more time to think about physics.

Stephen Hawking Disabilities

Hawking had a rare early-onset slow-progressing form of motor neurone disease (MND; also known as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis , ” ALS “, or Lou Gehrig’s disease), a terminal illness that affects and causes the
deaths of neurones that control the brain and the spinal cord, that gradually paralysed him over the decades.
The MND diagnosis came when Hawking was 21, in 1963. At the time, doctors gave him a life expectancy of two years.

In the late 1960s, Hawking’s physical abilities declined: he began to use crutches, could no longer give lectures regularly and he slowly lost the ability to write. Hawking was fiercely independent and unwilling to accept help or make concessions for his disabilities.

Hawking’s speech deteriorated, and by the late 1970s he could be understood by only his family and closest friends. To communicate with others, someone who knew him well would interpret his speech into intelligible speech.

A wheelchair and different methods of creating speech were given to Stephen Hawking.

By 2009, he could no longer drive his wheelchair independently, but the same people who created his new typing mechanics were working on a method to drive his chair using movements made by his chin. This proved difficult, since Hawking could not move his neck, and trials showed that while he could indeed drive the chair, the movement was sporadic and jumpy. Near the end of his life, Hawking experienced increased breathing difficulties, often resulting in his requiring the usage of a ventilator , and being regularly hospitalised.

Religion and atheism

Hawking was an atheist and believed that “the universe is governed by the laws of science”.

He stated: “There is a fundamental difference between religion, which is based on authority, [and] science, which is based on observation and reason. Science will win because it works.” In an interview published in The Guardian, Hawking regarded “the brain as a computer which will stop working when its components fail”, and the concept of an afterlife as a “fairy story for people afraid of the dark”.

In 2011, narrating the first episode of the American television series Curiosity on the Discovery Channel , Hawking declared:

We are each free to believe what we want and it is my view that the simplest explanation is there is no God. No one created the universe and no one directs our fate. This leads me to a profound realisation. There is probably no heaven, and no afterlife either. We have this one life to appreciate the grand design of the universe, and for that, I am extremely grateful.

Hawking’s association with atheism and freethinking was in evidence from his university years onwards, when he had been a member of Oxford University’s humanist group. He was later scheduled to appear as the keynote speaker at a 2017 Humanists UK conference. In an interview with El Mundo , he said:

Before we understand science, it is natural to believe that God created the universe. But now science offers a more convincing explanation. What I meant by ‘we would know the mind of God’ is, we would know everything that God would know, if there were a God, which there isn’t. I’m an atheist.

In addition, Hawking stated:

If you like, you can call the laws of science ‘God,’ but it wouldn’t be a personal God that you would meet and put questions to.

Stephen Hawking Popular books

  • A Brief History of Time (1988)
  • Black Holes and Baby Universes and Other Essays (1993)
  • The Universe in a Nutshell (2001)
  • On the Shoulders of Giants (2002)
  • God Created the Integers: The Mathematical Breakthroughs That Changed History (2005)
  • The Dreams That Stuff Is Made of: The Most Astounding Papers of Quantum
  • Physics and How They Shook the Scientific World (2011)
  • My Brief History (2013)
  • Brief Answers to the Big Questions (2018).

Other books

Co-authored

  • The Nature of Space and Time (with Roger Penrose ) (1996)
  • The Large, the Small and the Human Mind (with Roger Penrose, Abner Shimony and Nancy Cartwright) (1997)
  • The Future of Spacetime (with Kip Thorne ,
  • Igor Novikov , Timothy Ferris and introduction by Alan Lightman , Richard H. Price ) (2002)
  • A Briefer History of Time(withLeonard Mlodinow) (2005).
  • The Grand Design (with Leonard Mlodinow) (2010)

Forewords

Black Holes & Time Warps: Einstein’s Outrageous Legacy ( Kip Thorne , and introduction by Frederick Seitz ) (1994)

Children’s fiction

Co-written with his daughter Lucy .

George’s Secret Key to the Universe (2007)

George’s Cosmic Treasure Hunt (2009)

George and the Big Bang (2011)

George and the Unbreakable Code (2014)

George and the Blue Moon (2016)